Quinine is a standard drug for treating severe malaria in Africa, and it is also increasingly used to treat uncomplicated disease.
The effect of 16 alpha-acetoxy-26-hydroxycholest-4-ene-3,22-dione (SN-1) isolated from Solanum nudum Dunal (a Solanaceae traditionally used for treating fever in Colombia) on Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte stages and its in vitro antiplasmodial activity when combined with the following conventional drugs was studied: chloroquine (CQ), amodiaquine (AQ), desethylamodiaquine (desethyl-AQ), quinine (QN), artemisinin (AR), atovaquone (ATV) and quinine (QN).
There was no evidence to indicate a dose relationship between quinine and occurrence of hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia concurred with severity features, disruption of glucose infusion and transfusion. Careful glucose monitoring should be targeted to these complications where resources are limited.
'Immune' plasma containing anti-malarial antibodies inhibits parasite development and multiplication and increases apparent in vitro anti-malarial drug susceptibility of P. falciparum.
In this study, an isolated, perfused guinea pig heart system was constructed to assess the cardiotoxic potential of anti-malarial drugs.
These data, together with a meta-analysis of all trials comparing artesunate and quinine, strongly suggest that parenteral artesunate should replace quinine as the treatment of choice for severe falciparum malaria worldwide.
This study demonstrates that consumers require access to correct and comprehensible information associated with use of drugs, including self-prescription.
Quinine resistance (QNR) in Plasmodium falciparum has been detected in many regions of the world where malaria is endemic. Genetic polymorphisms in at least four genes are implicated in QN susceptibility, and their significance often depends on the genetic background of the parasites.
Sixty-six children presenting to Singa hospital, Sudan with different manifestations of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria were randomly divided into two well-matched groups (33 in each arm) to receive either intravenous artesunate 2•4 mg/kg at 0, 12, and 24 hours, then daily, or intravenous quinine 20 mg/kg initially then 10 mg/kg three times a day.
We have analyzed the profiles of 23 of Plasmodium falciparum strains for their in vitro chemosusceptibilities to piperaquine (PPQ), dihydroartemisinin (DHA), chloroquine, monodesethylamodiaquine, quinine, mefloquine, lumefantrine, atovaquone, pyrimethamine, and doxycycline (DOX) in association with polymorphisms in genes involved in quinoline resistance (Plasmodium falciparum crt [pfcrt], pfmdr1, pfmrp, and pfnhe).