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Zambia

Not Open Access | Predictors of Plasmodium falciparum infection in the first trimester among nulliparous women from Kenya, Zambia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo

December 14, 2021 - 21:07 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Leuba SI, Westreich D, Bauserman M, et al.
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2021 Dec 9:jiab588

Malaria can have deleterious effects early in pregnancy, during placentation. However, malaria testing and treatment are rarely initiated until the second trimester, leaving pregnancies unprotected in the first trimester. To inform potential early intervention approaches, we sought to identify clinical and demographic predictors of first-trimester malaria.

Early life adversity, biological adaptation, and human capital: evidence from an interrupted malaria control program in Zambia

December 7, 2021 - 21:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Fink G, Venkataramani AS, Zanolini A
Reference: 
J Health Econ. 2021 Dec;80:102532

Growing evidence from evolutionary biology demonstrates how early life shocks trigger physiological changes. We report the evaluation and prediction of the pharmacokinetic (PK) performance of artemisinin (ART) cocrystal formulations, that is, 1:1 artemisinin/orcinol (ART-ORC) and 2:1 artemisinin/resorcinol (ART2-RES), using in vivo murine animal and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models.

Performance evaluation of RDT, light microscopy, and PET-PCR for detecting Plasmodium falciparum malaria infections in the 2018 Zambia National Malaria Indicator Survey

October 9, 2021 - 10:03 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mulenga C. Mwenda, Abebe A. Fola, Ilinca I. Ciubotariu, Conceptor Mulube, Brenda Mambwe, Rachael Kasaro, Moonga B. Hawela, Busiku Hamainza, John M. Miller, Giovanna Carpi and Daniel J. Bridges
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:386, 28 September 2021

Zambia continues to advance on the path to elimination with significant reductions in malaria morbidity and mortality. Crucial components that have contributed to progress thus far and are necessary for achieving the national malaria elimination goals include properly identifying and treating all malaria cases through accurate diagnosis. This study sought to compare and assess the diagnostic performance of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT) and Light Microscopy (LM) with photo-induced electron transfer polymerase chain reaction (PET-PCR) as the gold standard using 2018 Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS) data across Zambia to better understand diagnostic accuracy metrics and how these vary across a transmission gradient.

Decreased prevalence of the Plasmodium falciparum Pfcrt K76T and Pfmdr1 and N86Y mutations post-chloroquine treatment withdrawal in Katete District, Eastern Zambia

July 28, 2021 - 15:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mwenda C. Mulenga, Lungowe Sitali, Ilinca I. Ciubotariu, Moonga B. Hawela, Busiku Hamainza, James Chipeta and Sungano Mharakurwa
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:329, 28 July 2021

In 2002, Zambia withdrew chloroquine as first-line treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria due to increased treatment failure and worldwide spread of chloroquine resistance. The artemisinin combination regimen, artemether–lumefantrine, replaced chloroquine (CQ) as first choice malaria treatment. The present study determined the prevalence of CQ resistance molecular markers in the Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 genes in Eastern Zambia at 9 and 13 years after the removal of drug pressure.

mHAT app for automated malaria rapid test result analysis and aggregation: a pilot study

June 1, 2021 - 15:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Carson Moore, Thomas Scherr, Japhet Matoba, Caison Sing’anga, Mukuma Lubinda, Phil Thuma and David Wright
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:237, 26 May 2021

There are a variety of approaches being used for malaria surveillance. While active and reactive case detection have been successful in localized areas of low transmission, concerns over scalability and sustainability keep the approaches from being widely accepted. Mobile health interventions are poised to address these shortcomings by automating and standardizing portions of the surveillance process. In this study, common challenges associated with current data aggregation methods have been quantified, and a web-based mobile phone application is presented to reduce the burden of reporting rapid diagnostic test (RDT) results in low-resource settings.

Retrospective evaluation of the effectiveness of indoor residual spray with pirimiphos‐methyl (Actellic) on malaria transmission in Zambia

April 7, 2021 - 12:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Joseph Keating, Joshua O. Yukich, John M. Miller, Sara Scates, Busiku Hamainza, Thomas P. Eisele and Adam Bennett
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:173, 1 April 2021

Widespread insecticide resistance to pyrethroids could thwart progress towards elimination. Recently, the World Health Organization has encouraged the use of non-pyrethroid insecticides to reduce the spread of insecticide resistance. An electronic tool for implementing and tracking coverage of IRS campaigns has recently been tested (mSpray), using satellite imagery to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the enumeration process. The purpose of this paper is to retrospectively analyse cross-sectional observational data to provide evidence of the epidemiological effectiveness of having introduced Actellic 300CS and the mSpray platform into IRS programmes across Zambia.

Modelling of malaria risk, rates, and trends: A spatiotemporal approach for identifying and targeting sub-national areas of high and low burden

March 2, 2021 - 15:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lubinda J, Bi Y, Hamainza B, Haque U, Moore AJ
Reference: 
PLoS Comput Biol. 2021 Mar 1;17(3):e1008669

While mortality from malaria continues to decline globally, incidence rates in many countries are rising. Within countries, spatial and temporal patterns of malaria vary across communities due to many different physical and social environmental factors. To identify those areas most suitable for malaria elimination or targeted control interventions, we used Bayesian models to estimate the spatiotemporal variation of malaria risk, rates, and trends and determine areas of high or low malaria burden compared to their geographical neighbours.

Geographically extensive larval surveys reveal an unexpected scarcity of primary vector mosquitoes in a region of persistent malaria transmission in western Zambia

February 2, 2021 - 16:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Cross DE, Thomas C, McKeown N, Siaziyu V, Healey A, Willis T, Singini D, Liywalii F, Silumesii A, Sakala J, Smith M, Macklin M, Hardy AJ, Shaw PW
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Feb 1;14(1):91

The Barotse floodplains of the upper Zambezi River and its tributaries are a highly dynamic environment, with seasonal flooding and transhumance presenting a shifting mosaic of potential larval habitat and human and livestock blood meals for malaria vector mosquitoes. However, limited entomological surveillance has been undertaken to characterize the vector community in these floodplains and their environs. Such information is necessary as, despite substantial deployment of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) against Anopheles vectors, malaria transmission persists across Barotseland in Zambia’s Western Province.

Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine parasitological efficacy against Plasmodium falciparum among pregnant women and molecular markers of resistance in Zambia: an observational cohort study

January 27, 2021 - 15:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Enesia Banda Chaponda, Sungano Mharakurwa, Charles Michelo, Jane Bruce, Daniel Chandramoha and R. Matthew Chico
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:61, 22 January 2021

The World Health Organization recommends the provision of intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) at 4-week intervals from gestational week 13 to delivery in areas of moderate to high malaria transmission intensity. However, the effect of IPTp-SP has been compromised in some areas due to parasite resistance, raising the importance of parasitological and chemoprophylactic surveillance, and monitoring SP-resistance markers in the Plasmodium falciparum population.

Near-term climate change impacts on sub-national malaria transmission

January 16, 2021 - 15:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lubinda J, Haque U, Bi Y, Hamainza B, Moore AJ
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Jan 12;11(1):751

The role of climate change on global malaria is often highlighted in World Health Organisation reports. We modelled a Zambian socio-environmental dataset from 2000 to 2016, against malaria trends and investigated the relationship of near-term environmental change with malaria incidence using Bayesian spatio-temporal, and negative binomial mixed regression models.

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