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sub-Saharan Africa

Urban malaria in sub-Saharan Africa: dynamic of the vectorial system and the entomological inoculation rate

September 8, 2021 - 17:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
P. Doumbe-Belisse, E. Kopya, C. S. Ngadjeu, N. Sonhafouo-Chiana, A. Talipouo, L. Djamouko-Djonkam, H. P. Awono-Ambene, C. S. Wondji, F. Njiokou and C. Antonio-Nkondjio
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:364, 8 September 2021

Sub-Saharan Africa is registering one of the highest urban population growth across the world. It is estimated that over 75% of the population in this region will be living in urban settings by 2050. However, it is not known how this rapid urbanization will affect vector populations and disease transmission. The present study summarizes findings from studies conducted in urban settings between the 1970s and 2020 to assess the effects of urbanization on the entomological inoculation rate pattern and anopheline species distribution.

Risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum infection in pregnant women in Burkina Faso: a community-based cross-sectional survey

September 8, 2021 - 16:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jean Baptiste Yaro, Alphonse Ouedraogo, Amidou Diarra, Salif Sombié, Z. Amidou Ouedraogo, Issa Nébié, Chris Drakeley, Sodiomon B. Sirima, Alfred B. Tiono, Steven W. Lindsay and Anne L. Wilson
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:362, 6 September 2021

Malaria in pregnancy remains a public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Identifying risk factors for malaria in pregnancy could assist in developing interventions to reduce the risk of malaria in Burkina Faso and other countries in the region.

Threats to the effectiveness of insecticide-treated bednets for malaria control: thinking beyond insecticide resistance

September 1, 2021 - 17:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lindsay SW, Thomas MB, Kleinschmidt I
Reference: 
Lancet Glob Health. 2021 Sep;9(9):e1325-e1331

From 2004 to 2019, insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) have been the most effective tool for reducing malaria morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Recently, however, the decline in malaria cases and deaths has stalled. Some suggest that this inertia is due to increasing resistance in malaria vectors to the pyrethroid insecticides used for treating ITNs.

Effect of a single dose of oral azithromycin on malaria parasitaemia in children: a randomized controlled trial

September 1, 2021 - 17:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Boubacar Coulibaly, Ali Sié, Catherine E. Oldenburg, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:360, 31 August 2021

Azithromycin has recently been shown to reduce all-cause childhood mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. One potential mechanism of this effect is via the anti-malarial effect of azithromycin, which may help treat or prevent malaria infection. This study evaluated short- and longer-term effects of azithromycin on malaria outcomes in children.

Not Open Access | Unanticipated CNS Safety Signal in a Placebo-controlled, Randomized Trial of Co-administered Atovaquone-Proguanil and Amodiaquine

September 1, 2021 - 15:48 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Chalon S, Chughlay MF, Abla N, Tchouatieu AM, Haouala A, Hutter B, Lorch U, Macintyre F
Reference: 
Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2021 Aug 28

Atovaquone-proguanil (ATV-PG) plus amodiaquine (AQ) has been considered as a potential replacement for sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus AQ for seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) in African children. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study assessed the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of ATV-PG plus AQ in healthy adult males and females of Black sub-Saharan African origin.

Individual, community and societal correlates of insecticide treated net use among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa: a multi-level analysis

September 1, 2021 - 15:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ameyaw EK
Reference: 
BMC Public Health. 2021 Aug 26;21(1):1592

Malaria in pregnancy is a crucial public health concern due to the enormous risk it poses to maternal and newborn health. The World Health Organisation therefore recommends insecticide-treated net (ITN) for pregnant women. The world over, sub-Saharan Africa bears the highest prevalence of malaria and its associated complications. This study investigated the individual, community and society level factors associated with ITN use among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa.

Efficacy of cipargamin (KAE609) in a randomized, Phase II dose-escalation study in adults in sub-Saharan Africa with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria

August 25, 2021 - 16:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Schmitt EK, Ndayisaba G, Gandhi P, et al.
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Aug 19:ciab716

Cipargamin (KAE609) is a potent antimalarial in Phase II. Here we report efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and resistance marker analysis across a range of cipargamin doses. These were secondary endpoints from a study primarily conducted to assess the hepatic safety of cipargamin (hepatic safety data are reported elsewhere).

NOT Open Access | Pyrethroid Resistance in Anopheles gambiae Not Associated with Insecticide-Treated Mosquito Net Effectiveness Across Sub-Saharan Africa

August 25, 2021 - 15:54 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Larsen DA, Church RL
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Aug 23:tpmd200229

Pyrethroid resistance is a major concern for malaria vector control programs that predominantly rely on insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs). Contradictory results of the impact of resistance have been observed during field studies. We combined continent-wide estimates of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae from 2006 to 2017, with continent-wide survey data to assess the effect of increasing pyrethroid resistance on the effectiveness of ITNs to prevent malaria infections in sub-Saharan Africa.

Public health-relevant consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on malaria in sub-Saharan Africa: a scoping review

August 17, 2021 - 17:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Anna-Katharina Heuschen, Guangyu Lu, Oliver Razum, Alhassan Abdul-Mumin, Osman Sankoh, Lorenz von Seidlein, Umberto D’Alessandro and Olaf Müller
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:339, 11 August 2021

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in unprecedented challenges to health systems worldwide, including the control of non-COVID-19 diseases. Malaria cases and deaths may increase due to the direct and indirect effects of the pandemic in malaria-endemic countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This scoping review aims to summarize information on public health-relevant effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the malaria situation in SSA.

NOT Open Access | Towards intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine

August 17, 2021 - 14:22 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ter Kuile FO
Reference: 
Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2021 Aug 13

Malaria is a major cause of adverse pregnancy outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa, but resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, the only antimalarial recommended by the World Health Organisation for intermittent preventive therapy, is threatening the gains made in the last two decades. In this issue, Mlugu and colleagues present the results of a trial of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine as an alternative to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. The results are impressive but raise the question why they differ so much from three previous trials.

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