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sub-Saharan Africa

Genome variation and population structure among 1142 mosquitoes of the African malaria vector species Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii

October 7, 2020 - 14:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Anopheles gambiae 1000 Genomes Consortium, Chris S Clarkson, Alistair Miles, Dominic P Kwiatkowski, et al.
Reference: 
Genome Res. 2020 Oct;30(10):1533-1546

Mosquito control remains a central pillar of efforts to reduce malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa. However, insecticide resistance is entrenched in malaria vector populations, and countries with a high malaria burden face a daunting challenge to sustain malaria control with a limited set of surveillance and intervention tools.

How useful are malaria risk maps at the country level? Perceptions of decision-makers in Kenya, Malawi and the Democratic Republic of Congo

October 6, 2020 - 12:47 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ludovica Ghilardi, George Okello, Jayne Webster, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:353, 2 October 2020

Declining malaria prevalence and pressure on external funding have increased the need for efficiency in malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Modelled Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) maps are increasingly becoming available and provide information on the epidemiological situation of countries. However, how these maps are understood or used for national malaria planning is rarely explored. In this study, the practices and perceptions of national decision-makers on the utility of malaria risk maps, showing prevalence of parasitaemia or incidence of illness, was investigated.

Managing intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy challenges: an ethnographic study of two Ghanaian administrative regions

September 29, 2020 - 13:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Matilda Aberese-Ako, Pascal Magnussen, Margaret Gyapong, Gifty D. Ampofo and Harry Tagbor
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:347, 25 September 2020

Malaria in pregnancy (MiP) is an important public health problem across sub-Saharan Africa. The package of measures for its control in Ghana in the last 20 years include regular use of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs), directly-observed administration (DOT) of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) and prompt and effective case management of MiP. Unfortunately, Ghana like other sub-Saharan African countries did not achieve the reset Abuja targets of 100% of pregnant women having access to IPTp and 100% using LLINs by 2015.

Estimating Annual Fluctuations in Malaria Transmission Intensity and in the Use of Malaria Control Interventions in Five Sub-Saharan African Countries

September 23, 2020 - 09:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rts S Epidemiology Epi-Mal-Study Group, Adeniji E, Asante KP, Wéry S, et al.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Sep 21

RTS,S/AS01E malaria vaccine safety, effectiveness, and impact will be assessed in pre- and post-vaccine introduction studies, comparing the occurrence of malaria cases and adverse events in vaccinated versus unvaccinated children. Because those comparisons may be confounded by potential year-to-year fluctuations in malaria transmission intensity and malaria control intervention usage, the latter should be carefully monitored to adequately adjust the analyses.

Quality of clinical management of children diagnosed with malaria: A cross-sectional assessment in 9 sub-Saharan African countries between 2007-2018

September 15, 2020 - 14:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Cohen JL, Leslie HH, Saran I, Fink G
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2020 Sep 14;17(9):e1003254

Appropriate clinical management of malaria in children is critical for preventing progression to severe disease and for reducing the continued high burden of malaria mortality. This study aimed to assess the quality of care provided to children under 5 diagnosed with malaria across 9 sub-Saharan African countries.

NOT Open Access | The preclinical discovery and development of rectal artesunate for the treatment of malaria in young children; review of evidence

September 15, 2020 - 14:35 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
de Carvalho LP, Kreidenweiss A, Held J
Reference: 
Expert Opin Drug Discov. 2020 Sep 14:1-10

Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest malaria parasite, kills hundreds of thousands of people per year, mainly young children in Sub-Saharan Africa. Artesunate suppositories are recommended as pre-referral malaria treatment in remote endemic areas for severely ill children to prevent progression of the disease and to provide extra time for patients until the definitive severe malaria treatment can be administered.

Minimal tillage and intermittent flooding farming systems show a potential reduction in the proliferation of Anopheles mosquito larvae in a rice field in Malanville, Northern Benin

September 15, 2020 - 10:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Innocent Djègbè, Merdie Zinsou, Edia Flavien Dovonou, Geneviève Tchigossou, Murielle Soglo, Razack Adéoti, Brice Gbaguidi, Seun Atoyebi, Fabrice Chandre, Martin Akogbéto, Jo Lines and Rousseau Djouaka
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:333, 14 September 2020

Irrigation systems have been identified as one of the factors promoting malaria disease around agricultural farms in sub-Saharan Africa. However, if improved water management strategy is adopted during rice cultivation, it may help to reduce malaria cases among human population living around rice fields. This study aimed to assess the impact of the different irrigation practices on malaria transmission, as well as to evaluate the water management system that will best mitigate malaria transmission in Malanville, Benin.

Sub-optimal Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) is associated with an increased risk of submicroscopic P. falciparum infection in pregnant women: a prospective cohort study in Benin

September 10, 2020 - 08:51 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hounkonnou CPA, Ndam NT, Fievet N, Accrombessi M, Yovo E, Mama A, Sossou D, Vianou B, Massougbodji A, Briand V, Cot M, Cottrell G
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 9:ciaa1355

Harmful maternal and neonatal health outcomes result from malaria in pregnancy, the prevention of which primarily relies on intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP). WHO recommends IPTp-SP in sub-Saharan Africa, but implementation is highly heterogeneous and often sub-optimal in terms of the number of doses and their timing. In this study, we assessed the impact of this heterogeneity on malaria in pregnancy, mainly with respect to submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum infections.

Attrition, physical integrity and insecticidal activity of long-lasting insecticidal nets in sub-Saharan Africa and modelling of their impact on vectorial capacity

September 1, 2020 - 09:57 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Olivier Briet, Hannah Koenker, Tom Smith, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:310, 28 August 2020

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the primary malaria prevention and control intervention in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. While LLINs are expected to last at least 3 years under normal use conditions, they can lose effectiveness because they fall out of use, are discarded, repurposed, physically damaged, or lose insecticidal activity. The contributions of these different interrelated factors to durability of nets and their protection against malaria have been unclear.

Impact of Health Systems on the Implementation of Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria in Pregnancy in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Narrative Synthesis

August 27, 2020 - 08:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Olaleye AO, Walker O
Reference: 
Trop Med Infect Dis. 2020 Aug 22;5(3):E134

Malaria in pregnancy is a public health challenge with serious negative maternal and newborn consequences. Intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine is recommended for the control of malaria during pregnancy within endemic areas, but coverage for the recommended ≥3 doses IPTp regimen has remained suboptimal. We searched PubMed, Cochrane library, and HINARI database from 1 January 2010 to 23 May 2020, for studies investigating the effect of the health system on IPTp implementation.

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