Members of the Anopheles gambiae complex breed in clean, sunlit temporary bodies of water. Anthropogenic pollution is, however, altering the breeding sites of the vectors with numerous biological effects. Although the effects of larval metal pollution have previously been examined, this study aims to assess the transgenerational effects of larval metal pollution on the major malaria vector An. arabiensis.
Vector control is a key component of malaria prevention. Two major vector control strategies have been implemented in São Tomé and Príncipe (STP), indoor residual spraying (IRS) and outdoor larval control using Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti). This study evaluated post-intervention effects of control strategies on vector population density, composition, and knockdown resistance mutation, and their implications for malaria epidemiology in STP.