Insecticide resistance is threatening the effectiveness of efforts to control malaria vectors in Benin. This study explores the levels and mechanisms of insecticide resistance in An. gambiae s.l. to pyrethroids.
Pyrethroid contact insecticides are mainstays of malaria control, but their efficacies are declining due to widespread insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquito populations, a major public health challenge. Several strategies have been proposed to overcome this challenge, including insecticides with new modes of action. New insecticides, however, can be expensive to implement in low-income countries.
A new generation of IRS insecticides which can provide improved and prolonged control of pyrethroid-resistant malaria vector populations are being developed. Fludora® Fusion is a new IRS insecticide containing a mixture of deltamethrin and clothianidin, a neonicotinoid.
The putative synergistic action of target-site mutations and enhanced detoxification in pyrethroid resistance in insects has been hypothesized as a major evolutionary mechanism responsible for dramatic consequences in malaria incidence and crop production. Combining genetic transformation and CRISPR/Cas9 genome modification, we generated transgenic Drosophila lines expressing pyrethroid metabolizing P450 enzymes in a genetic background along with engineered mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (para) known to confer target-site resistance.
This field study, in a tribal district of India, after distribution of deltamethrin-impregnated LLINs showed decrease in deltamethrin susceptibility in An. culicifacies, a major vector of malaria in this study area and in India. Results indicated development of resistance as imminent with the increase in insecticide selection pressure.