Malaria epidemics are a well-described phenomenon after extreme precipitation and flooding, which account for nearly half of global disasters over the past two decades. Yet few studies have examined mitigation measures to prevent post-flood malaria epidemics.
The Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (PfDHFR) inhibitors pyrimethamine and cycloguanil (the active metabolite of proguanil) have important roles in malaria chemoprevention, but drug resistance challenges their efficacies. A new compound, P218, was designed to overcome resistance, but drug susceptibility data for P. falciparum field isolates are limited.
Malaria is often persistent in communities surrounded by mosquito breeding habitats. Anopheles gambiae sensu lato exploit a variety of aquatic habitats, but the biotic determinants of its preferences are poorly understood. This study aimed to identify and quantify macroinvertebrates in different habitat types with determined water physico-chemical parameters to establish those preferred by An. gambiae s.l. larvae as well as their predators and competitors.
Approximately 50 % of the population in Uganda seeks health care from private facilities but there is limited data on the quality of care for malaria in these facilities. This study aimed to document the knowledge, practices and resources during the delivery of malaria care services, among private health practitioners in the Mid-Western region of Uganda, an area of moderate malaria transmission.
Microbiota composition recently arose as a factor correlating with malaria infection. Mandal et al. showed, via cecal transplant and antibacterial treatment, that the mouse microbiota modulates parasitemia by affecting spleen germinal centers where B cells are matured. They further identified correlations between microbiota composition and malaria severity in Ugandan children.
Children in Uganda are at risk for significant cognitive sequelae from severe malaria. Computerized cognitive rehabilitation training (CCRT) represents a potential method to improve working memory, behavior, and executive functioning, cognitive domains most at risk following severe malaria. The primary aim of this study was to complete a secondary analysis of data from a concluded CCRT randomized control trial in order to compare the training efficiency of a commonly used CCRT program under conditions of titrated (adaptive) or non-titrated (non-adaptive) training and with children with increasing malaria severity to determine how various factors may affect potential CCRT improvement.
A randomised controlled trial (RCT) on integrated malaria prevention, which advocates the use of several malaria prevention methods holistically, has been proposed. However, before conducting an RCT, it is recommended that a feasibility study is carried out to provide information to support the main study, particularly for such a complex intervention. Therefore, a feasibility study for an RCT on integrated malaria prevention in Uganda was conducted.
Among novel compounds under recent investigation as potential new antimalarial drugs are three independently developed inhibitors of the Plasmodium falciparum P-type ATPase (PfATP4): KAE609 (cipargamin), PA92, and SJ733. We assessed ex vivo susceptibilities to these compounds of 374 fresh P. falciparum isolates collected in Tororo and Busia districts, Uganda from 2016-2019. Median IC50s were 65 nM for SJ733, 9.1 nM for PA92, and 0.5 nM for KAE609. Sequencing of pfatp4 for 218 of these isolates demonstrated many non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms; the most frequent mutations were G1128R (69% of isolates mixed or mutant), Q1081K/R (68%), G223S (25%), N1045K (16%) and D1116G/N/Y (16%).
In 2011, the World Health Organization recommended injectable artesunate as the first-line therapy for severe malaria (SM) due to its superiority in reducing mortality compared to quinine. There are limited data on long-term clinical and neurobehavioral outcomes after artemisinin use for treatment of SM.
Subsidising quality-assured artemisinin combination therapies (QAACTs) for distribution in the for-profit sector is a controversial strategy for improving access. The Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm) was the largest initiative of this kind. We assessed the equity of AMFm in two ways using nationally representative household survey data on care seeking for children from Nigeria and Uganda.