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Papua New Guinea

Increase in the proportion of Plasmodium falciparum with kelch13 C580Y mutation and decline in pfcrt and pfmdr1 mutant alleles in Papua New Guinea

October 30, 2021 - 14:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Naoko Yoshida, Masato Yamauchi, Ryosuke Morikawa, Francis Hombhanje and Toshihiro Mita
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:410, 19 October 2021

The C580Y mutation in the Plasmodium falciparum kelch13 gene is the most commonly observed variant in artemisinin-resistant isolates in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). Until 2017, it had not been identified outside the GMS, except for Guyana/Amazonia. In 2017, three parasites carrying the C580Y mutation were identified in Papua New Guinea (PNG). As the C580Y allele rapidly spread in the GMS, there is concern that this mutant is now spreading in PNG.

The relationship between markers of antenatal iron stores and birth outcomes differs by malaria prevention regimen-a prospective cohort study

October 16, 2021 - 13:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Unger HW, Laurita Longo V, Bleicher A, Ome-Kaius M, Karl S, Simpson JA, Karahalios A, Aitken EH, Rogerson SJ
Reference: 
BMC Med. 2021 Oct 5;19(1):236

Iron deficiency (ID) has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, maternal anaemia, and altered susceptibility to infection. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), monthly treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine plus azithromycin (SPAZ) prevented low birthweight (LBW; <2500 g) through a combination of anti-malarial and non-malarial effects when compared to a single treatment with SP plus chloroquine (SPCQ) at first antenatal visit. We assessed the relationship between ID and adverse birth outcomes in women receiving SPAZ or SPCQ, and the mediating effects of malaria infection and haemoglobin levels during pregnancy.

Investigating differences in village-level heterogeneity of malaria infection and household risk factors in Papua New Guinea

August 18, 2021 - 16:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gul D, Rodríguez-Rodríguez D, Nate E, Auwan A, Salib M, Lorry L, Keven JB, Katusele M, Rosado J, Hofmann N, Ome-Kaius M, Koepfli C, Felger I, Kazura JW, Hetzel MW, Mueller I, Karl S, Clements ACA, Fowkes FJI, Laman M, Robinson LJ
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Aug 16;11(1):16540

Malaria risk is highly heterogeneous. Understanding village and household-level spatial heterogeneity of malaria risk can support a transition to spatially targeted interventions for malaria elimination. This analysis uses data from cross-sectional prevalence surveys conducted in 2014 and 2016 in two villages (Megiar and Mirap) in Papua New Guinea. Generalised additive modelling was used to characterise spatial heterogeneity of malaria risk and investigate the contribution of individual, household and environmental-level risk factors.

Coverage, determinants of use and repurposing of long-lasting insecticidal nets two years after a mass distribution in Lihir Islands, Papua New Guinea: a cross-sectional study

August 4, 2021 - 16:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Pere Millat-Martínez, Rebecca Gabong, Quique Bassat, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:336, 4 August 2021

Universal coverage with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is an essential component of malaria control programmes. Three-yearly mass distribution of LLINs in Papua New Guinea (PNG) has been successful in reducing infection transmission since 2009, but malaria prevalence ramped up from 2015 onwards. Although LLIN universal coverage is mostly achieved during these campaigns, it may not be related with net use over time. Uses given to LLINs and non-compliance of this strategy were evaluated.

Spatial prediction of malaria prevalence in Papua New Guinea: a comparison of Bayesian decision network and multivariate regression modelling approaches for improved accuracy in prevalence prediction

June 16, 2021 - 13:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Eimear Cleary, Manuel W. Hetzel, Paul Siba, Colleen L. Lau and Archie C. A. Clements
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:269, 13 June 2021

Considerable progress towards controlling malaria has been made in Papua New Guinea through the national malaria control programme’s free distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets, improved diagnosis with rapid diagnostic tests and improved access to artemisinin combination therapy. Predictive prevalence maps can help to inform targeted interventions and monitor changes in malaria epidemiology over time as control efforts continue. This study aims to compare the predictive performance of prevalence maps generated using Bayesian decision network (BDN) models and multilevel logistic regression models (a type of generalized linear model, GLM) in terms of malaria spatial risk prediction accuracy.

NOT Open Access | Quality Control of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets: Are We Neglecting It

March 30, 2021 - 14:29 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Karl S, Katusele M, Freeman TW, Moore SJ
Reference: 
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Mar 25:S1471-4922(21)00056-8

Over 2.2 billion long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) for malaria control have been delivered to recipient countries. LLINs are the largest single item in the global malaria control budget. To be eligible for donor-funded procurement and distribution schemes, LLIN products must attain and retain World Health Organization (WHO) prequalification status by passing safety, quality, and efficacy benchmarks.

Magneto-optical diagnosis of symptomatic malaria in Papua New Guinea

February 15, 2021 - 15:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Arndt L, Koleala T, Karl S, et al.
Reference: 
Nat Commun. 2021 Feb 12;12(1):969

Improved methods for malaria diagnosis are urgently needed. Here, we evaluate a novel method named rotating-crystal magneto-optical detection (RMOD) in 956 suspected malaria patients in Papua New Guinea. RMOD tests can be conducted within minutes and at low cost. We systematically evaluate the capability of RMOD to detect infections by directly comparing it with expert light microscopy, rapid diagnostic tests and polymerase chain reaction on capillary blood samples.

SNP barcodes provide higher resolution than microsatellite markers to measure Plasmodium vivax population genetics

October 20, 2020 - 16:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Abebe A. Fola, Eline Kattenberg, Zahra Razook, Dulcie Lautu-Gumal, Stuart Lee, Somya Mehra, Melanie Bahlo, James Kazura, Leanne J. Robinson, Moses Laman, Ivo Mueller and Alyssa E. Barry
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:375, 20 October 2020

Genomic surveillance of malaria parasite populations has the potential to inform control strategies and to monitor the impact of interventions. Barcodes comprising large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are accurate and efficient genotyping tools, however may need to be tailored to specific malaria transmission settings, since ‘universal’ barcodes can lack resolution at the local scale. A SNP barcode was developed that captures the diversity and structure of Plasmodium vivax populations of Papua New Guinea (PNG) for research and surveillance.

Not Open Access | Monitoring Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax using microsatellite markers indicates limited changes in population structure after substantial transmission decline in Papua New Guinea

September 30, 2020 - 11:46 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Kattenberg JH, Razook Z, Barry AE, et al.
Reference: 
Mol Ecol. 2020 Sep 28

Monitoring the genetic structure of pathogen populations may be an economical and sensitive approach to quantify the impact of control on transmission dynamics, highlighting the need for a better understanding of changes in population genetic parameters as transmission declines. Here we describe the first population genetic analysis of the major human malaria parasites, Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and Plasmodium vivax (Pv) following nationwide distribution of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLIN) in Papua New Guinea (PNG).

NOT Open Access | Decreased Mortality of falciparum Malaria in Anemic Prisoners of War

September 10, 2020 - 08:46 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Shanks GD
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Sep 8

Modern clinical trials have suggested that anemia protects against malaria mortality. Military records of the Second World War in Asia were examined to see if there was support for this hypothesis. When relatively well-nourished Imperial Japanese Navy sailors captured on Nauru (n = 799) were imprisoned on the Fauro Islands, 26% died from falciparum malaria.

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