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Equatorial Guinea

A colorimetric test for the evaluation of the insecticide content of LLINs used on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

November 20, 2021 - 14:22 -- Open Access
Harparkash Kaur, Elizabeth Louise Allan, Teunis A. Eggelte, Guillermo A. García and Feliciano Monti
Malaria Journal 2021 20:433, 10 November 2021

Insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying of insecticides are used as the vector control interventions in the fight against malaria. Measuring the actual amount of deposits of insecticides on bed nets and walls is essential for evaluating the quality and effectiveness of the intervention. A colorimetric “Test Kit” designed for use as a screening tool, able to detect the type II pyrethroids on fabrics and sprayed walls, was used for the first time to detect deltamethrin on long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) deployed on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

Population genetic analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte binding antigen-175 (EBA-175) gene in Equatorial Guinea

October 6, 2021 - 20:04 -- Open Access
Pei-Kui Yang, Xue-Yan Liang, Ying-E. Wu, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:374, 19 September 2021

Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte binding antigen-175 (PfEBA-175) is a candidate antigen for a blood-stage malaria vaccine, while various polymorphisms and dimorphism have prevented to development of effective vaccines based on this gene. This study aimed to investigate the dimorphism of PfEBA-175 on both the Bioko Island and continent of Equatorial Guinea, as well as the genetic polymorphism and natural selection of global PfEBA-175.

Incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in 6-month to 45-year-olds on selected areas of Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

July 21, 2021 - 18:01 -- Open Access
Vicente Urbano Nsue Ndong Nchama, Ali Hamad Said, Salim Abdulla, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:322, 20 July 2021

Extensive malaria control measures have been implemented on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea over the past 16 years, reducing parasite prevalence and malaria-related morbidity and mortality, but without achieving elimination. Malaria vaccines offer hope for reducing the burden to zero. Three phase 1/2 studies have been conducted successfully on Bioko Island to evaluate the safety and efficacy of whole Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoite (SPZ) malaria vaccines. A large, pivotal trial of the safety and efficacy of the radiation-attenuated Sanaria® PfSPZ Vaccine against P. falciparum is planned for 2022. This study assessed the incidence of malaria at the phase 3 study site and characterized the influence of socio-demographic factors on the burden of malaria to guide trial design.

Clustering of subpatent infections in households with asymptomatic rapid diagnostic test-positive cases in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea independent of travel to regions of higher malaria endemicity: a cross-sectional study

July 14, 2021 - 11:13 -- Open Access
Dianna E. B. Hergott, Jennifer E. Balkus, Sean C. Murphy, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:313, 12 July 2021

Prevalence of falciparum malaria on Bioko Island remains high despite sustained, intensive control. Progress may be hindered by high proportions of subpatent infections that are not detected by rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) but contribute to onward transmission, and by imported infections. Better understanding of the relationship between subpatent infections and RDT-detected infections, and whether this relationship is different from imported versus locally acquired infections, is imperative to better understand the sources of infection and mechanisms of transmission to tailor more effective interventions.

Therapeutic efficacy of artesunate-amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine and polymorphism in Plasmodium falciparum kelch13-propeller gene in Equatorial Guinea

June 23, 2021 - 14:06 -- Open Access
Matilde Riloha Rivas, Marian Warsame, Pascal Ringwald, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:275, 22 June 2021

Artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) are the currently recommended first- and second-line therapies for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infections in Equatorial Guinea. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of these artemisinin-based combinations and detect mutations in P. falciparum kelch13-propeller domain gene (Pfkelch13).

Knowledge and practices regarding malaria and the National Treatment Guidelines among public health workers in Equatorial Guinea

January 13, 2021 - 08:16 -- Open Access
Marta Blanco, Pablo Suárez-Sanchez, Belén García, Jesús Nzang, Policarpo Ncogo, Matilde Riloha, Pedro Berzosa, Agustín Benito and María Romay-Barja
Malaria Journal 2021 20:21, 7 January 2021

In 2018, an estimated 228 million cases of malaria occurred worldwide. Countries are far from having achieved reasonable levels of national protocol compliance among health workers. Lack of awareness of treatment protocols and treatment resistance by prescribers threatens to undermine progress when it comes to reducing the prevalence of this disease. This study sought to evaluate the degree of knowledge and practices regarding malaria diagnosis and treatment amongst prescribers working at the public health facilities of Bata, Equatorial Guinea.

Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of Radiation-Attenuated and Chemo-Attenuated PfSPZ Vaccines in Equatoguinean Adults

November 19, 2020 - 12:58 -- Open Access
Jongo SA, Urbano V, Hoffman SL, et al.
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Nov 16

Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) Vaccine (radiation-attenuated, aseptic, purified, cryopreserved PfSPZ) and PfSPZ-CVac (infectious, aseptic, purified, cryopreserved PfSPZ administered to subjects taking weekly chloroquine chemoprophylaxis) have shown vaccine efficacies (VEs) of 100% against homologous controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) in nonimmune adults. Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite-CVac has never been assessed against CHMI in African vaccinees.

Genetic polymorphism of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea and global comparative analysis

July 14, 2020 - 09:34 -- Open Access
Hui-Ying Huang, Xue-Yan Liang, Min Lin, et al.
Malaria Journal 2020 19:245, 13 July 2020

Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) is a potential malaria vaccine candidate, but various polymorphisms of the pfcsp gene among global P. falciparum population become the major barrier to the effectiveness of vaccines. This study aimed to investigate the genetic polymorphisms and natural selection of pfcsp in Bioko and the comparison among global P. falciparum population.

First evidence of the deletion in the pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes in Plasmodium falciparum from Equatorial Guinea

March 9, 2020 - 13:46 -- Open Access
Pedro Berzosa, Vicenta González, Laura Taravillo, Alfredo Mayor, María Romay-Barja, Luz García, Policarpo Ncogo, Matilde Riloha and Agustín Benito
Malaria Journal 2020 19:99, 2 March 2020

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) as a good alternative malaria-diagnosis method in remote parts of sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of commercial RDTs currently available detect the Plasmodium falciparum protein histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2). There have also been recent reports of pfhrp2 gene deletions being found in parasites collected from several African countries. The WHO has concluded that lacking the pfhrp2 gene must be monitored in Africa. The purpose of the study was to analyse why the samples that were positive by PCR were negative by RDTs and, therefore, to determine whether there have been deletions in the pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 genes.

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