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Brazilian Amazon

Asymptomatic Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Brazilian Amazon: Submicroscopic parasitemic blood infects Nyssorhynchus darlingi

November 4, 2021 - 12:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Almeida GG, Costa PAC, Gazzinelli RT, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Oct 29;15(10):e0009077

Individuals with asymptomatic infection due to Plasmodium vivax are posited to be important reservoirs of malaria transmission in endemic regions. Here we studied a cohort of P. vivax malaria patients in a suburban area in the Brazilian Amazon. Overall 1,120 individuals were screened for P. vivax infection and 108 (9.6%) had parasitemia detected by qPCR but not by microscopy. Asymptomatic individuals had higher levels of antibodies against P. vivax and similar hematological and biochemical parameters compared to uninfected controls.

The association between a conditional cash transfer programme and malaria incidence: a longitudinal ecological study in the Brazilian Amazon between 2004 and 2015

June 30, 2021 - 12:48 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Alves LC, Sanchez MN, Hone T, Pinto LF, Nery JS, Tauil PL, Barreto ML, Penna GO
Reference: 
BMC Public Health. 2021 Jun 29;21(1):1253

Malaria causes 400 thousand deaths worldwide annually. In 2018, 25% (187,693) of the total malaria cases in the Americas were in Brazil, with nearly all (99%) Brazilian cases in the Amazon region. The Bolsa Família Programme (BFP) is a conditional cash transfer (CCT) programme launched in 2003 to reduce poverty and has led to improvements in health outcomes. CCT programmes may reduce the burden of malaria by alleviating poverty and by promoting access to healthcare, however this relationship is underexplored. This study investigated the association between BFP coverage and malaria incidence in Brazil.

Real-life implementation of a G6PD deficiency screening qualitative test into routine vivax malaria diagnostic units in the Brazilian Amazon (SAFEPRIM study)

May 19, 2021 - 14:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Brito-Sousa JD, Murta F, Lacerda MVG, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 May 18;15(5):e0009415

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency greatly hinders Plasmodium vivax malaria radical cure and further elimination due to 8-aminoquinolines-associated hemolysis. Although the deleterious health effects of primaquine in G6PD deficient individuals have been known for over 50 years, G6PD testing is not routinely performed before primaquine treatment in most P. vivax endemic areas.

Vector role and human biting activity of Anophelinae mosquitoes in different landscapes in the Brazilian Amazon

May 12, 2021 - 12:30 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Oliveira TMP, Laporta GZ, Bergo ES, Chaves LSM, Antunes JLF, Bickersmith SA, Conn JE, Massad E, Sallum MAM
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 May 6;14(1):236

Environmental disturbance, deforestation and socioeconomic factors all affect malaria incidence in tropical and subtropical endemic areas. Deforestation is the major driver of habitat loss and fragmentation, which frequently leads to shifts in the composition, abundance and spatial distribution of vector species. The goals of the present study were to: (i) identify anophelines found naturally infected with Plasmodium; (ii) measure the effects of landscape on the number of Nyssorhynchus darlingi, presence of Plasmodium-infected Anophelinae, human biting rate (HBR) and malaria cases; and (iii) determine the frequency and peak biting time of Plasmodium-infected mosquitoes and Ny. darlingi.

Adverse pregnancy outcomes are associated with Plasmodium vivax malaria in a prospective cohort of women from the Brazilian Amazon

May 5, 2021 - 11:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Dombrowski JG, Barateiro A, Marinho CRF, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Apr 29;15(4):e0009390

Malaria in Brazil represents one of the highest percentages of Latin America cases, where approximately 84% of infections are attributed to Plasmodium (P.) vivax. Despite the high incidence, many aspects of gestational malaria resulting from P. vivax infections remain poorly studied. As such, we aimed to evaluate the consequences of P. vivax infections during gestation on the health of mothers and their neonates in an endemic area of the Amazon.

Malaria transmission in landscapes with varying deforestation levels and timelines in the Amazon: a longitudinal spatiotemporal study

March 23, 2021 - 14:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Laporta GZ, Ilacqua RC, Sallum MAM, et al.
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Mar 19;11(1):6477

The relationship between deforestation and malaria is a spatiotemporal process of variation in Plasmodium incidence in human-dominated Amazonian rural environments. The present study aimed to assess the underlying mechanisms of malarial exposure risk at a fine scale in 5-km2 sites across the Brazilian Amazon, using field-collected data with a longitudinal spatiotemporally structured approach.

Performance of a sensitive haemozoin‐based malaria diagnostic test validated for vivax malaria diagnosis in Brazilian Amazon

March 18, 2021 - 09:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gisely Cardoso de Melo, Rebeca Linhares Abreu Netto, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães Lacerda, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:146, 12 March 2021

Vivax malaria diagnosis remains a challenge in malaria elimination, with current point of care rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) missing many clinically significant infections because of usually lower peripheral parasitaemia. Haemozoin-detecting assays have been suggested as an alternative to immunoassay platforms but to date have not reached successful field deployment. Haemozoin is a paramagnetic crystal by-product of haemoglobin digestion by malaria parasites and is present in the food vacuole of malaria parasite-infected erythrocytes. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic capability of a new haemozoin-detecting platform, the Gazelle™ device with optical microscopy, RDT and PCR in a vivax malaria-endemic region.

NOT Open Access | Diversity of Culturable Bacteria Isolated From the Feces of Wild Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes From the Brazilian Amazon

March 17, 2021 - 09:24 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Arruda A, Ferreira GEM, Santos Júnior A, Matos NB, Carvalho TS, Ozaki LS, Stabeli RG, Silva AAE
Reference: 
J Med Entomol. 2021 Mar 11:tjab028

Microorganisms living in the midgut of Anopheles mosquitoes have been studied to fight vector-borne diseases, such as malaria. Studies on the microbiota of the Neotropical Anopheles darlingi, the most important Brazilian vector for malaria, have been reported for the same purpose. Our aims were to isolate and identify culturable bacteria from An. darlingi mosquito guts through their feces and to estimate the species richness and the frequency distribution of the sampled bacteria.

Should we care about Plasmodium vivax and HIV co-infection? A systematic review and a cases series from the Brazilian Amazon

January 9, 2021 - 12:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Paola López Del-Tejo, Nadia Cubas-Vega, Fernando Val, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:13, 6 January 2021

Malaria and HIV are two important public health issues. However, evidence on HIV-Plasmodium vivax co-infection (HIV/PvCo) is scarce, with most of the available information related to Plasmodium falciparum on the African continent. It is unclear whether HIV can change the clinical course of vivax malaria and increase the risk of complications. In this study, a systematic review of HIV/PvCo studies was performed, and recent cases from the Brazilian Amazon were included.

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