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mosquito bite

IMRAS-Immunization with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites by mosquito bite: Cellular immunity to sporozoites, CSP, AMA1, TRAP and CelTOS

August 25, 2021 - 16:20 -- Open Access
Sedegah M, Hollingdale MR, Villasante E, et al.
PLoS One. 2021 Aug 20;16(8):e0256396

Immunization with radiation-attenuated sporozoites (RAS) by mosquito bites provides >90% sterile protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria in humans. We conducted a clinical trial based on data from previous RAS clinical trials that suggested that 800–1200 infected bites should induce ~50% protective vaccine efficacy (VE) against controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) administered three weeks after the final immunization. Two cohorts were immunized separately. VE was 55% in Cohort 1 but 90% in Cohort 2, the cohort that received a higher first dose and a reduced (fractional) fifth dose. Immune responses were better boosted by the fractional fifth dose in Cohort 2 and suggested the importance of the fractional fifth dose for increased protection in Cohort 2 responses. Three protected subjects were later boosted and were protected suggesting that protection could be extended to at least 67 weeks.

Quantifying individual variability in exposure risk to mosquito bites in the Cascades region, Burkina Faso

January 20, 2021 - 08:26 -- Open Access
Federica Guglielmo, Antoine Sanou, Thomas Churcher, Heather M. Ferguson, Hilary Ranson and Ellie Sherrard-Smith
Malaria Journal 2021 20:44, 18 January 2021

The Cascades region, Burkina Faso, has a high malaria burden despite reported high insecticide-treated mosquito net (ITN) use. Human and vector activities outside the hours when indoor interventions offer direct protection from infectious bites potentially increase exposure risk to bites from malaria-transmitting Anopheles mosquitoes. This work investigated the degree of variation in human behaviour both between individuals and through time (season) to quantify how it impacts exposure to malaria vectors.

A randomized clinical trial to compare P. falciparum gametocytaemia and infectivity following blood-stage or mosquito bite induced controlled malaria infection

April 6, 2020 - 15:41 -- Open Access
Alkema M, Reuling IJ, Bousema T, et al.
J Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 2. pii: jiaa157

For malaria elimination efforts it is important to better understand parasite transmission to mosquitoes and develop models for early-clinical evaluation of transmission-blocking interventions.

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