Population-wide interventions using malaria testing and treatment might decrease the reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum infection and accelerate towards elimination. Questions remain about their effectiveness and evidence from different transmission settings is needed.
rapid diagnostic test
Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium vivax are the predominant Plasmodium species that cause malaria in Malaysia and play a role in asymptomatic malaria disease transmission in Malaysia. The diagnostic tools available to diagnose malaria, such as microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT), are less sensitive at detecting lower parasite density. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR), which has been shown to have higher sensitivity at diagnosing malaria, allows direct quantification without the need for a standard curve. The aim of this study is to develop and use a duplex ddPCR assay for the detection of P. knowlesi and P. vivax, and compare this method to nested PCR and qPCR.
The World Health Organization initiated test, treat, and track (T3) malaria strategy to support malaria-endemic countries in their efforts to achieve universal coverage with diagnostic testing, antimalarial treatment, and strengthening surveillance systems. Unfortunately, T3 is not adopted by over-the-counter medicine sellers (OTCMS) where many patients with malaria-like symptoms first seek treatment. Sub-Saharan African countries are considering introducing and scaling up RDTs in these outlets to reduce malaria burden. In this context, this study is aimed at improving implementation of the T3 among OTCMS using a number of intervention tools that could be scaled-up easily at the national level.
A mass drug administration trial was carried out in Southern Province, Zambia, between 2014 and 2016, in conjunction with a standard of care package that included improved surveillance, increased access to malaria case management, and sustained high levels of vector control coverage. This was preceded by mass test and treatment in the same area from 2011 to 2013. Concordant decreases in malaria prevalence in Southern Province and deaths attributed to malaria in Zambia over this time suggest that these strategies successfully reduced the malaria burden.
The ultrasensitive Alere Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Ag histidine-rich protein 2 rapid diagnostic test (Alere uRDT) is a new diagnostic tool which is more expensive than other malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) routinely used in Ugandan clinics. The manufacturer recommends testing samples within 2 days and scoring results after 20 minutes, which may be impractical in high-volume resource-poor clinics.
A previously healthy Japanese man in his fifties was admitted to our hospital because of a recurrent fever after returning from Kenya and Madagascar. He was ambulant with a body temperature of 36.6 °C. His physical examination revealed normal except for tender hepatomegaly.
Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have become the most common diagnostic tool for detection of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, in particular in remote areas. RDT blood spots provide a source of parasite DNA for molecular analysis. In this study, the utility of RDTs for molecular analysis and the performance of different methods for whole genome amplification were investigated.
While sub-microscopic malarial infections are frequent and potentially deleterious during pregnancy, routine molecular detection is still not feasible. This study aimed to assess the performance of a Histidine Rich Protein 2 (HRP2)-based ultrasensitive rapid diagnostic test (uRDT, Alere Malaria Ag Pf) for the detection of infections of low parasite density in pregnant women.
In recent years, Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 gene deletion has been reported in India. Such isolates are prone to selective transmission and thus form a challenge to case management. As most of the rapid malaria diagnostic tests are based on the detection of HRP2 protein in the blood, we attempted to use Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH) as a biomarker for the diagnosis of P. falciparum.
Malaria is endemic in all regions where gambiense or rhodesiense human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is reported, and both diseases have similarities in their symptomatology. A combined test could be useful for both diseases and would facilitate integration of the screening for gambiense HAT (gHAT) and malaria diagnosis. This study aimed to evaluate a combined prototype rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for gHAT and malaria.