Chloroquine (CQ) is an important drug used therapeutically for treatment of malaria. However, due to limited number of studies on metabolic targets of chloroquine (CQ), it is difficult to attribute mechanisms underlying resistance associated with usage of this drug. The present study aimed to investigate the metabolic signatures of CQ-resistant Plasmodium falciparum (PfDd2) compared to CQ-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum (Pf3D7).
Genetic changes conferring drug resistance are generally believed to impose fitness costs to pathogens in the absence of the drug. However, the fitness of resistant parasites against sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine has been inconclusive in Plasmodium falciparum. This is because resistance is conferred by the complex combination of mutations in dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) and dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr), which makes it difficult to separately assess the extent and magnitude of the costs imposed by mutations in dhps and dhfr.
Immunoglobulin (Ig)A antibodies play a critical role in protection against mucosal pathogens. However, the role of serum IgA in immunity to nonmucosal pathogens, such as Plasmodium falciparum, is poorly characterized, despite being the second most abundant isotype in blood after IgG. Here, we investigated the circulating IgA response in humans to P. falciparum sporozoites that are injected into the skin by mosquitoes and migrate to the liver via the bloodstream to initiate malaria infection. We found that circulating IgA was induced in three independent sporozoite-exposed cohorts: individuals living in an endemic region in Mali, malaria-naïve individuals immunized intravenously with three large doses of irradiated sporozoites, and malaria-naïve individuals exposed to a single controlled mosquito bite infection.
In the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, two point mutations in the acetylcholinesterase (ace-1R) and the sodium channel (kdrR) genes confer resistance to organophosphate/carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides, respectively. The mechanisms of compensation that recover the functional alterations associated with these mutations and their role in the modulation of insecticide efficacy are unknown.
Over the last few decades, a substantial number of anti-malarial effector genes have been evaluated for their ability to block parasite infection in the mosquito vector. While many of these approaches have yielded significant effects on either parasite intensity or prevalence of infection, just a few have been able to completely block transmission.
Daily periodicity in the diverse activities of parasites occurs across a broad taxonomic range. The rhythms exhibited by parasites are thought to be adaptations that allow parasites to cope with, or exploit, the consequences of host activities that follow daily rhythms. Malaria parasites (Plasmodium) are well-known for their synchronized cycles of replication within host red blood cells. Whilst most species of Plasmodium appear sensitive to the timing of the daily rhythms of hosts, and even vectors, some species present no detectable rhythms in blood-stage replication. Why the intraerythrocytic development cycle (IDC) of, for example Plasmodium chabaudi, is governed by host rhythms, yet seems completely independent of host rhythms in Plasmodium berghei, another rodent malaria species, is mysterious.
P218 is a highly selective dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor with potent in vitro activity against pyrimethamine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. This single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase Ib study evaluated P218 safety and chemoprotective efficacy in a P. falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) volunteer infection study (VIS). Consecutive dose safety and tolerability were evaluated (cohort 1), with participants receiving two oral doses of P218 1,000 mg 48 hours apart (n = 6), or placebo (n = 2). P218 chemoprotective efficacy was assessed (cohorts 2 and 3) with direct venous inoculation of 3,200 aseptic, cryopreserved PfSPZ (NF54 strain) followed 2 hours later with two P218 doses of 1,000 mg (cohort 2, n = 9) or 100 mg (cohort 3, n = 9) administered 48 hours apart, or placebo (n = 6).
Cas9/gRNA-mediated gene-drive systems have advanced development of genetic technologies for controlling vector-borne pathogen transmission. These technologies include population suppression approaches, genetic analogs of insecticidal techniques that reduce the number of insect vectors, and population modification (replacement/alteration) approaches, which interfere with competence to transmit pathogens.
C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) develop neurological symptoms and die 6-–7-day post-inoculation in the absence of high parasitemia.