The C580Y mutation in the Plasmodium falciparum kelch13 gene is the most commonly observed variant in artemisinin-resistant isolates in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). Until 2017, it had not been identified outside the GMS, except for Guyana/Amazonia. In 2017, three parasites carrying the C580Y mutation were identified in Papua New Guinea (PNG). As the C580Y allele rapidly spread in the GMS, there is concern that this mutant is now spreading in PNG.
The ability of malaria parasites to develop resistance to antimalarial drugs has made it necessary to continuously survey malaria parasite populations for resistance markers. Mutations in specific malaria parasite genes confer resistance to antimalarial drugs. The study compared mutations in Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 genes of P. falciparum from two ecologically different areas of Nigeria. Plasmodium falciparum dried blood spots collected from New Bussa (Northcentral Nigeria) and Ijede (Southwest Nigeria) were analysed by PCR-RFLP for Pfcrt, K76 T, Pfmdr1, N86Y and Y184F mutations.
Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance-1 gene (pfmdr1) polymorphisms associate with altered antimalarial susceptibility. Between 2010 and 2018/2019, we observed that the prevalence of the wild-type allele N86 and the wild-type combination NYD increased 10-fold (4% versus 40%) and more than 2-fold (18% versus 44%), respectively.
We determined the prevalence of Kelch 13 mutations and pfmdr1 copy number in samples collected from the Thailand-Myanmar border, the Thailand-Cambodia border, and southern Thailand from 2002 to 2007.
Anti-malarial drug resistance may be limited by decreased fitness in resistant parasites. Important contributors to resistance are mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum putative drug transporter PfMDR1.
Delayed Plasmodium falciparum parasite clearance has been associated with Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the kelch protein propeller domain (coded by pfk13 gene). SNPs in the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 (pfmdr1) are associated with multi-drug resistance including the combination artemether-lumefantrine. To our knowledge, this is the first work providing information on the prevalence of k13-propeller and pfmdr1 mutations from Sédhiou, a region in the south of Senegal.
Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) have been vital in reducing malaria mortality rates since the 2000s. Their efficacy, however, is threatened by the emergence and spread of artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia. The Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance protein 1 (PfMDR1) transporter plays a central role in parasite resistance to ACT partner drugs through gene copy number variations (CNV) and/or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Using genomic epidemiology, we show that multiple pfmdr1 copies encoding the N86 and 184F haplotype are prevalent across Southeast Asia.
Imported falciparum malaria from Africa has become a key public health challenge in Guizhou Province since 2012. Understanding the polymorphisms of molecular markers of drug resistance can guide selection of antimalarial drugs for the treatment of malaria. This study was aimed to analyze the polymorphisms of pfcrt, pfmdr1, and K13-propeller among imported falciparum malaria cases in Guizhou Province, China.