The search for a novel prophylactic agent against malaria is on the rise due to the negative socio-economic impact of the disease in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Sequel to this, we evaluated the in vivo anti-Plasmodium berghei activity of a high-carbohydrate diet as well as the effects of the diet on parasite-associated anemia and organ damage.
Immunomodulatory effects of parasitic infections on the outcomes of allergic or autoimmune disorders have been addressed in many experimental studies. We examined the effects of Plasmodium yoelii 17X NL (Py) infection on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA).
Pro-inflammatory signaling, cell death, and metalloproteinases activation are events in Plasmodium infection. However, it is not known if treatment with mefloquine (MF), and curcumin (CM) supplementation, will modulate these conditions. Malaria was induced in two different studies using susceptible (NK 65, study 1) and resistant (ANKA, study 2) strains of mouse malaria parasites (Plasmodium berghei) in thirty male Swiss mice (n = 5) in each study. Following confirmation of parasitemia, mice received 10 mL/kg distilled water (infected control), MF (10 mg/kg), MF and CM (25 mg/kg), MF and CM (50 mg/kg), CM (25 mg/kg) and CM (50 mg/kg). Five mice (not infected) were used as control. After treatment, the animals were sacrificed, serum obtained and liver mitochondria were isolated.
Radiation-attenuated sporozoite (RAS) vaccination offers hope for global malaria control through induction of protective liver-stage-specific memory CD8 T cells. Effective RAS vaccination regimens exist; however, widespread implementation remains unfeasible. A key difficulty resides in the need to administer three or more doses i.v. to achieve sufficient immunity.
Pvs48/45 is a Plasmodium vivax gametocyte surface protein involved in the parasite fertilization process. Previous studies showed that Pvs48/45 proteins expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were highly immunoreactive with sera from malaria-endemic areas and highly immunogenic in animal models. Here the immunogenicity in mice of three different vaccine formulations was compared.
Overwhelming activation of T cells in acute malaria is associated with severe outcomes. Thus, counter-regulation by anti-inflammatory mechanisms is indispensable for an optimal resolution of disease. Using Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection of C57BL/6 mice, we performed a comprehensive analysis of co-inhibitory molecules expressed on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells using an unbiased cluster analysis approach. We identified similar T cell clusters co-expressing several co-inhibitory molecules like programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3) in the CD4+ and the CD8+ T cell compartment.
Plasmodium parasites that infect humans are highly polymorphic, and induce various infections ranging from asymptomatic state to life-threatening diseases. However, how the differences between the parasites affect host immune responses during blood-stage infection remains largely unknown. We investigated the CD4 + T-cell immune responses in mice infected with P. berghei ANKA (PbA) or P. chabaudi chabaudi AS (Pcc) using PbT-II cells, which recognize a common epitope of these parasites. In the acute phase of infection, CD4 + T-cell responses in PbA-infected mice showed a lower involvement of Th1 cells and a lower proportion of Ly6C lo effector CD4 + T cells than those in Pcc-infected mice.
Malaria remains one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in tropical regions of the world, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where it remains epidemiologically holoendemic. The absence of effective vaccines and Plasmodium resistance to antimalarial drugs have been the major challenges to malaria control measures. An alternative strategy could be the application of validated and standardized herbal formulations.
Experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) is a severe complication of Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection in mice, characterised by CD8+ T cell accumulation within the brain. Whilst the dynamics of CD8+ T cell activation and migration during extant primary PbA infection have been extensively researched, the fate of the parasite-specific CD8+ T cells upon resolution of ECM are not understood. In this study we show that memory OT-I cells persist systemically within the spleen, lung and brain following recovery from ECM after primary PbA-OVA infection.
Malaria is a parasitic lethal disease caused by Plasmodium protozoa. The resistance and drugs’ side effects have led to numerous researches for alternative suitable drugs with better efficiency and lower toxicity.