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Analysis of pir gene expression across the Plasmodium life cycle

December 15, 2021 - 21:14 -- Open Access
Timothy S. Little, Deirdre A. Cunningham, Jean Langhorne, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:445, 25 November 2021

Plasmodium interspersed repeat (pir) is the largest multigene family in the genomes of most Plasmodium species. A variety of functions for the PIR proteins which they encode have been proposed, including antigenic variation, immune evasion, sequestration and rosetting. However, direct evidence for these is lacking. The repetitive nature of the family has made it difficult to determine function experimentally. However, there has been some success in using gene expression studies to suggest roles for some members in virulence and chronic infection.

Not Open Access | Type I interferon production elicits differential CD4 + T-cell responses in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA and P. chabaudi

October 20, 2021 - 20:00 -- NOT Open Access
Ntita M, Inoue SI, Yui K, et al.
Int Immunol. 2021 Oct 14:dxab090

Plasmodium parasites that infect humans are highly polymorphic, and induce various infections ranging from asymptomatic state to life-threatening diseases. However, how the differences between the parasites affect host immune responses during blood-stage infection remains largely unknown. We investigated the CD4 + T-cell immune responses in mice infected with P. berghei ANKA (PbA) or P. chabaudi chabaudi AS (Pcc) using PbT-II cells, which recognize a common epitope of these parasites. In the acute phase of infection, CD4 + T-cell responses in PbA-infected mice showed a lower involvement of Th1 cells and a lower proportion of Ly6C lo effector CD4 + T cells than those in Pcc-infected mice.

Screening of viral-vectored P. falciparum pre-erythrocytic candidate vaccine antigens using chimeric rodent parasites

July 13, 2021 - 14:54 -- Open Access
Kolli SK, Salman AM, Janse CJ, et al.
PLoS One. 2021 Jul 12;16(7):e0254498

To screen for additional vaccine candidate antigens of Plasmodium pre-erythrocytic stages, fourteen P. falciparum proteins were selected based on expression in sporozoites or their role in establishment of hepatocyte infection. For preclinical evaluation of immunogenicity of these proteins in mice, chimeric P. berghei sporozoites were created that express the P. falciparum proteins in sporozoites as an additional copy gene under control of the uis4 gene promoter.

Dissection-independent production of Plasmodium sporozoites from whole mosquitoes

June 23, 2021 - 13:47 -- Open Access
Blight J, Sala KA, Baum J, et al.
Life Sci Alliance. 2021 Jun 16;4(7):e202101094

Progress towards a protective vaccine against malaria remains slow. To date, only limited protection has been routinely achieved following immunisation with either whole-parasite (sporozoite) or subunit-based vaccines. One major roadblock to vaccine progress, and to pre-erythrocytic parasite biology in general, is the continued reliance on manual salivary gland dissection for sporozoite isolation from infected mosquitoes.

NOT Open Access | PSOP1, putative secreted ookinete protein 1, is localized to the micronemes of Plasmodium yoelii and P. berghei ookinetes

June 22, 2021 - 14:10 -- NOT Open Access
Tachibana M, Iriko H, Baba M, Torii M, Ishino T
Parasitol Int. 2021 Jun 17:102407

Plasmodium parasites cause malaria in mammalian hosts and are transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. Activated gametocytes in the mosquito midgut egress from erythrocytes followed by fertilization and zygote formation. Zygotes differentiate into motile invasive ookinetes, which penetrate the midgut epithelium before forming oocysts beneath the basal lamina.

Retraction Note: Antimalarial efficacy of Pongamia pinnata (L) Pierre against Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 strain) and Plasmodium berghei (ANKA)

May 12, 2021 - 09:46 -- Open Access
Satish PVV, Sunita K
BMC Complement Med Ther. 2021 May 10;21(1):139

No abstract available

Transmission-blocking compound candidates against Plasmodium vivax using P. berghei as an initial screening

February 11, 2021 - 09:21 -- Open Access
Fabbri C, Trindade AO, Andrade FS, Souza MF, Ríos-Velásquez CM, Lacerda MVG, Monteiro WM, Costa FTM, Amino R, Lopes SCP
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2021 Feb 8;116:e200513

Different strategies for improvement of malaria control and elimination are based on the blockage of malaria parasite transmission to the mosquito vector. These strategies include the drugs that target the plasmodial sexual stages in humans and the early developmental stages inside mosquitoes.

Plasmodium oocysts respond with dormancy to crowding and nutritional stress

February 8, 2021 - 10:41 -- Open Access
Habtewold T, Sharma AA, Wyer CAS, Masters EKG, Windbichler N, Christophides GK
Sci Rep. 2021 Feb 4;11(1):3090

Malaria parasites develop as oocysts in the mosquito for several days before they are able to infect a human host. During this time, mosquitoes take bloodmeals to replenish their nutrient and energy reserves needed for flight and reproduction. We hypothesized that these bloodmeals are critical for oocyst growth and that experimental infection protocols, typically involving a single bloodmeal at the time of infection, cause nutritional stress to the developing oocysts. Therefore, enumerating oocysts disregarding their growth and differentiation state may lead to erroneous conclusions about the efficacy of transmission blocking interventions.

In-depth proteomic analysis of Plasmodium berghei sporozoites using trapped ion mobility spectrometry with parallel accumulation-serial fragmentation

January 20, 2021 - 06:20 -- Open Access
Hamada S, Pionneau C, Parizot C, Silvie O, Chardonnet S, Marinach C
Proteomics. 2021 Jan 16:e2000305

Sporozoites of the malaria parasite Plasmodium are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect the liver for an initial and obligatory round of replication, before exponential multiplication in the blood and onset of the disease. Sporozoites and liver stages provide attractive targets for malaria vaccines and prophylactic drugs. In this context, defining the parasite proteome is important to explore the parasite biology and to identify potential targets for antimalarial strategies. Previous studies have determined the total proteome of sporozoites from the two main human malaria parasites, P. falciparum and P. vivax, as well as P. yoelii, which infects rodents.

NOT Open Access | Spiro-beta-lactam BSS-730A Displays Potent Activity against HIV and Plasmodium

January 5, 2021 - 15:12 -- NOT Open Access
Bártolo I, Santos BS, Taveira N, et al.
ACS Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 4

The high burden of malaria and HIV/AIDS prevents economic and social progress in developing countries. A continuing need exists for development of novel drugs and treatment regimens for both diseases in order to address the tolerability and long-term safety concerns associated with current treatment options and the emergence of drug resistance.


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