The overexpression and overactivity of key cytochrome P450s (CYP450) genes are major drivers of metabolic resistance to insecticides in African malaria vectors such as Anopheles funestus s.s. Previous RNAseq-based transcription analyses revealed elevated expression of CYP325A specific to Central African populations but its role in conferring resistance has not previously been demonstrated. In this study, RT-qPCR consistently confirmed that CYP325A is highly over-expressed in pyrethroid-resistant An. funestus from Cameroon, compared with a control strain and insecticide-unexposed mosquitoes.
In Central Africa, the malaria vector Anopheles coluzzii is predominant in urban and coastal habitats. However, little is known about the environmental factors that may be involved in this process. Here, we performed an analysis of 28 physicochemical characteristics of 59 breeding sites across 5 urban and rural sites in coastal areas of Central Africa. We then modelled the relative frequency of An. coluzzii larvae to these physicochemical parameters in order to investigate environmental patterns.
The specific immune response to the Anopheles salivary peptide could be a pertinent and complementary tool to assess the risk of malaria transmission and the effectiveness of vector control strategies. This study aimed to obtain first reliable data on the current state of the Anopheles gSG6-P1 biomarker for assess the level of exposure to Anopheles bites in high malaria endemic areas in Cameroon.