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PCR

Genetic diversity of plasmodium falciparum isolates in Minna, North Central Nigeria inferred by PCR genotyping of Merozoite surface protein 1 and 2

November 25, 2021 - 12:59 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hadijah UY, Innocent OCJ, Abdulkadir A, Abolarinwa SO, Samuel ES, Chidiebere OA
Reference: 
Infect Genet Evol. 2021 Nov 17:105143

North Central Nigeria is one region in Nigeria with a significant incidence of malaria caused majorly by Plasmodium falciparum. This study utilizes the msp1 and msp2 genes of P. falciparum to examine its diversity and multiplicity of infection (MOI). Blood samples were collected from 247 children across selected healthcare facilities in Minna, from infants and children aged 6 months to 17 years.

A citizen science-based survey of avian mortality focusing on haemosporidian infections in wild passerine birds

November 18, 2021 - 10:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tanja Himmel, Josef Harl, Julia Matt and Herbert Weissenböck
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:417, 23 October 2021

Haemosporidioses are common in birds and their manifestations range from subclinical infections to severe disease, depending on the involved parasite and bird species. Clinical haemosporidioses are often observed in non-adapted zoo or aviary birds, whereas in wild birds, particularly passerines, haemosporidian infections frequently seem to be asymptomatic. However, a recent study from Austria showed pathogenic haemosporidian infections in common blackbirds due to high parasite burdens of Plasmodium matutinum LINN1, a common parasite in this bird species, suggesting that virulent infections also occur in natural hosts. Based on these findings, the present study aimed to explore whether and to what extent other native bird species are possibly affected by pathogenic haemosporidian lineages, contributing to avian morbidity.

Detection of high frequency of MAD20 allelic variants of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 gene from Adama and its surroundings, Oromia, Ethiopia

October 9, 2021 - 09:58 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Temesgen File, Tsegaye Chekol, Gezahegn Solomon, Hunduma Dinka and Lemu Golassa
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:385, 27 September 2021

One of the major challenges in developing an effective vaccine against asexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum is genetic polymorphism within parasite population. Understanding the genetic polymorphism like block 2 region of merozoite surface protein-1 (msp-1) gene of P. falciparum enlighten mechanisms underlining disease pathology, identification of the parasite clone profile from the isolates, transmission intensity and potential deficiencies of the ongoing malaria control and elimination efforts in the locality. Detailed understanding of local genetic polymorphism is an input to pave the way for better management, control and elimination of malaria. The aim of this study was to detect the most frequent allelic variant of the msp-1 gene of P. falciparum clinical isolates from selected health facilities in Adama town and its surroundings, Oromia, Ethiopia.

Performance of rapid diagnostic tests, microscopy, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and PCR for malaria diagnosis in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

October 9, 2021 - 09:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Daniel Getacher Feleke, Yonas Alemu and Nebiyou Yemanebirhane
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:384, 27 September 2021

Rapid accurate diagnosis followed by effective treatment is very important for malaria control. Light microscopy remains the “golden standard” method for malaria diagnosis. Diagnostic test method must have sufficient level of accuracy for detecting malaria parasites. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), microscopy, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the malaria diagnosis in Ethiopia.

Evaluation of the Sysmex XN-31 automated analyser for blood donor malaria screening at Malawi Blood Transfusion Services

September 30, 2021 - 12:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
M'baya B, Mfune T, Samon A, Hwandih T, Münster M
Reference: 
Vox Sang. 2021 Sep 23

Balancing blood supply safety and sufficiency is challenging in malaria-endemic countries where the risk of transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM) is ever-present. In support of reducing this risk, our study aimed at evaluating the performance of the Sysmex XN-31 analyser in blood donor malaria screening, as compared with current practice in Malawi.

A comparison of PCR and ELISA methods to detect different stages of Plasmodium vivax in Anopheles arabiensis

September 25, 2021 - 11:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hendershot AL, Esayas E, Sutcliffe AC, Irish SR, Gadisa E, Tadesse FG, Lobo NF
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Sep 15;14(1):473

In characterizing malaria epidemiology, measuring mosquito infectiousness informs the entomological inoculation rate, an important metric of malaria transmission. PCR-based methods have been touted as more sensitive than the current “gold-standard” circumsporozoite (CSP) ELISA. Wider application of PCR-based methods has been limited by lack of specificity for the infectious sporozoite stage. We compared a PCR method for detecting the parasite’s mitochondrial (mt) cytochrome oxidase I (COX-I) gene with ELISA for detecting circumsporozoite protein for identification of different life stages of the parasite during development within a mosquito.

NOT Open Access | Development of a Fast Chemiluminescent Magneto-Immunoassay for Sensitive Plasmodium falciparum Detection in Whole Blood

September 14, 2021 - 09:27 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Sánchez-Cano A, Ruiz-Vega G, Vicente-Gómez S, de la Serna E, Sulleiro E, Molina I, Sánchez-Montalvá A, Baldrich E
Reference: 
Anal Chem. 2021 Sep 9

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that over three billion people are at risk of acquiring malaria, a parasitic infection that produces more than 200 million new infections and nearly half a million deaths each year. Expanding the access to early diagnosis and treatment is one of the most effective ways to prevent disease complications, reduce patient mortality, and curb the community transmission.

Clustering of malaria in households in the Greater Mekong Subregion: operational implications for reactive case detection

September 1, 2021 - 16:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mavuto Mukaka, Pimnara Peerawaranun, Lorenz von Seidlein, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:351, 26 August 2021

Malaria reactive case detection is the testing and, if positive, treatment of close contacts of index cases. It is included in national malaria control programmes of countries in the Greater Mekong Subregion to accelerate malaria elimination. Yet the value of reactive case detection in the control and elimination of malaria remains controversial because of the low yield, limited evidence for impact, and high demands on resources.

NOT Open Access | The Metabolomic Profiles of Sera of Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei and Treated by Effective Fraction of Naja naja oxiana Using (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

August 10, 2021 - 17:19 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Hajialiani F, Shahbazzadeh D, Maleki F, Elmi T, Tabatabaie F, Zamani Z
Reference: 
Acta Parasitol. 2021 Aug 6

The use of venom fractions from the Iranian cobra could be useful adjunct treatments of malaria with chloroquine. A metabolomic investigation with 1HNMR spectroscopy was conducted on an effective fraction tested earlier using Plasmodium berghei as an experimental murine model.

NOT Open Access | Molecular surveillance of malaria in the Central Highlands, Vietnam

August 4, 2021 - 16:06 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Võ TC, Lê HG, Kang JM, Naw H, Fan CK, Trinh NTM, Quang HH, Na BK
Reference: 
Parasitol Int. 2021 Aug;83:102374

Vietnam achieved outstanding success against malaria in the last few decades. The mortality and morbidity of malaria in Vietnam have decreased remarkably in recent years, but malaria is still a major public health concern in the country, particularly in the Central Highlands region. In this study, molecular analyses of malaria parasites in the Central Highlands were performed to understand the population structure and genetic diversity of the parasites circulating in the region.

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