Asymptomatic malaria infections largely remain undetected and act as a reservoir for continuous transmission. The study assessed the prevalence of submicroscopic asymptomatic malaria infections and anaemia in two rural low (300 m above sea level) and highland (700 m asl) settings of Korogwe District north-eastern Tanzania.
Individuals with asymptomatic infection due to Plasmodium vivax are posited to be important reservoirs of malaria transmission in endemic regions. Here we studied a cohort of P. vivax malaria patients in a suburban area in the Brazilian Amazon. Overall 1,120 individuals were screened for P. vivax infection and 108 (9.6%) had parasitemia detected by qPCR but not by microscopy. Asymptomatic individuals had higher levels of antibodies against P. vivax and similar hematological and biochemical parameters compared to uninfected controls.
Despite the growing evidence that malaria and anaemia are two interlinked health problems of school-aged children (SAC) in developing countries, there is scarce information about malaria among SAC in Ethiopia. Moreover, anaemia-related studies were more concentrated in easily accessible areas. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of malaria and anaemia and corresponding risk factors among SAC in Dara Mallo and Uba Debretshay districts, in hard to reach areas, so as to inform appropriate integrated interventions for both diseases.
Globally, there are over 200 million cases of malaria annually and over 400,000 deaths. Early and accurate detection of low-density parasitaemia and asymptomatic individuals is key to achieving the World Health Organization (WHO) 2030 sustainable development goals of reducing malaria-related deaths by 90% and eradication in 35 countries. Current rapid diagnostic tests are neither sensitive nor specific enough to detect the low parasite concentrations in the blood of asymptomatic individuals.
Screening malaria-specific antibody responses on protein microarrays can help identify immune factors that mediate protection against malaria infection, disease, and transmission, as well as markers of past exposure to both malaria parasites and mosquito vectors. Most malaria protein microarray work has used serum as the sample matrix, requiring prompt laboratory processing and a continuous cold chain, thus limiting applications in remote locations. Dried blood spots (DBS) pose minimal biohazard, do not require immediate laboratory processing, and are stable at room temperature for transport, making them potentially superior alternatives to serum. The goals of this study were to assess the viability of DBS as a source for antibody profiling and to use DBS to identify serological signatures of low-density Plasmodium falciparum infections in malaria-endemic regions of Myanmar.
Asymptomatic Plasmodium infections significantly drive malaria transmission and impact control and elimination strategies, but are largely uncharacterized. We investigated the prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic malaria infections to inform malaria control strategies in Ghana.
Malaria and schistosomiasis present considerable disease burden in tropical and sub-tropical areas and severity is worsened by co-infections in areas where both diseases are endemic. Although pathogenesis of these infections separately is well studied, there is limited information on the pathogenic disease mechanisms and clinical disease outcomes in co-infections. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of malaria and schistosomiasis co-infections, and the hematologic and blood chemistry abnormalities in asymptomatic adults in a rural fishing community in western Kenya.
Understanding epidemiological variables affecting gametocyte carriage and density is essential to design interventions that most effectively reduce malaria human-to-mosquito transmission.
Female Anopheles mosquitoes transmit malaria sporozoites to humans in the context of a blood meal. In malaria-endemic areas, most of the ensuing infections are asymptomatic. Some, however, progress to an uncomplicated illness (fever, headache, body aches, and pains).
Cytokines are soluble mediators of the immune response and their evolution influences the disease outcome. Gaining knowledge on cytokines has become important since they can constitute biomarkers allowing the diagnosis of malaria and preventing severe forms of the disease. Here, we investigated ten cytokines and their circulating levels in asymptomatic Gabonese children with Plasmodium falciparum infection living in urban, semi-urban and rural areas.