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Malaria incidence and mortality in Zimbabwe during the COVID-19 pandemic: analysis of routine surveillance data

May 26, 2021 - 09:29 -- Open Access
Samuel Gavi, Oscar Tapera, Joseph Mberikunashe and Mufaro Kanyangarara
Malaria Journal 2021 20:233, 24 May 2021

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed a unique challenge to health care systems globally. To curb COVID-19 transmission, mitigation measures such as travel restrictions, border closures, curfews, lockdowns, and social distancing have been implemented. However, these measures may directly and indirectly affect the delivery and utilization of essential health services, including malaria services. The suspension of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated net (ITN) distribution, shortages of malaria commodities, and reduced demand for health services have hindered the continued delivery of malaria services. The overall goal of this analysis was to describe the trends in malaria incidence and mortality in Zimbabwe prior to and during the pandemic to understand the consequences of COVID-19-related changes in the delivery and utilization of malaria services.

Detecting Plasmodium falciparum in community surveys: a comparison of Paracheck Pf® Test and ICT Malaria Pf® Cassette Test to polymerase chain reaction in Mutasa District, Zimbabwe

January 9, 2021 - 12:20 -- Open Access
Nobert Mudare, Zvifadzo Matsena-Zingoni, Aramu Makuwaza, Edmore Mamini, Shungu S. Munyati, Lovemore Gwanzura, Nicholas Midzi, Susan L. Mutambu, Peter Mason, Tamaki Kobayashi and Sungano Mharakurwa
Malaria Journal 2021 20:14, 6 January 2021

Microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are the main techniques used to diagnose malaria. While microscopy is considered the gold standard, RDTs have established popularity as they allow for rapid diagnosis with minimal technical skills. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of two Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2)-based RDTs (Paracheck Pf® Test (Paracheck) and Malaria Pf™ ICT (ICT)) to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a community survey.

Factors associated with malaria infection in Mudzi District, Mashonaland East Zimbabwe, 2019: a case-control study

November 25, 2020 - 11:59 -- Open Access
Masango TT, Nyadzayo TK, Gombe NT, Juru TP, Shambira G, Chiwanda S, Tshimanga MT
BMC Public Health. 2020 Nov 19;20(1):1745

Kondo Rural Health Centre recorded 27 malaria patients between the 27th of January 2019 and the 2nd of February 2019 against an epidemic threshold of 19 with the malaria outbreak being confirmed on the 5th of February 2019. Indoor residual spraying as part of integrated vector management control activities had been done in the district before the onset of the rainy season as well as social behaviour change communication but residents were contracting malaria. We, therefore, investigated the risk factors associated with this outbreak to recommend scientifically effective prevention and control measures.

NOT Open Access | Association of TNF (rs1800629) promoter polymorphism and schistosomiasis with sub-microscopic asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections in a schistosomiasis-endemic area in Zimbabwe

November 18, 2020 - 11:55 -- NOT Open Access
Vengesai A, Marume A, Midzi H, Kasambala M, Naicker T, Mduluza T
Trop Med Int Health. 2020 Nov 15

Infection with P. falciparum parasites may result in a wide spectrum of symptoms ranging from asymptomatic to mild or severe. A number of factors are associated with this heterogeneous response to P. falciparum infection. In the present study, associations between sub‐microscopic asymptomatic P. falciparum with Schistosoma species and TNF (rs1800629) polymorphism were investigated.

Spatial and spatio-temporal analysis of malaria cases in Zimbabwe

October 28, 2020 - 08:35 -- Open Access
Gwitira I, Mukonoweshuro M, Mapako G, Shekede MD, Chirenda J, Mberikunashe J
Infect Dis Poverty. 2020 Oct 22;9(1):146

Although effective treatment for malaria is now available, approximately half of the global population remain at risk of the disease particularly in developing countries. To design effective malaria control strategies there is need to understand the pattern of malaria heterogeneity in an area. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to explore the spatial and spatio-temporal pattern of malaria cases in Zimbabwe based on malaria data aggregated at district level from 2011 to 2016.

Malaria outbreak investigation in a rural area south of Zimbabwe: a case–control study

June 3, 2020 - 15:39 -- Open Access
Paddington T. Mundagowa and Pugie T. Chimberengwa
Malaria Journal 2020 19:197, 1 June 2020

Ninety percent of the global annual malaria mortality cases emanate from the African region. About 80–90% of malaria transmissions in sub-Saharan Africa occur indoors during the night. In Zimbabwe, 79% of the population are at risk of contracting the disease. Although the country has made significant progress towards malaria elimination, isolated seasonal outbreaks persistently resurface. In 2017, Beitbridge District was experiencing a second malaria outbreak within 12 months prompting the need for investigating the outbreak.

Scaling up malaria elimination management and leadership: a pilot in three provinces in Zimbabwe, 2016–2018

May 20, 2020 - 10:27 -- Open Access
Amanda Marr Chung, Peter Case, Joseph Mberikunashe, et al.
Malaria Journal 2020 19:185, 20 May 2020

Focus for improved malaria programme performance is often placed on the technical challenges, while operational issues are neglected. Many of the operational challenges that inhibit malaria programme effectiveness can be addressed by improving communication and coordination, increasing accountability, maintaining motivation, providing adequate training and supervision, and removing bureaucratic silos.

Genetic differentiation and population structure of Anopheles funestus from Uganda and the southern African countries of Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe

February 24, 2020 - 13:58 -- Open Access
Kaddumukasa MA, Wright J, Muleba M, Stevenson JC, Norris DE, Coetzee M
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Feb 18;13(1):87

Anopheles funestus (s.s.) is a primary vector of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in Africa, a human pathogen that causes almost half a million deaths each year. The population structure of An. funestus was examined in samples from Uganda and the southern African countries of Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

How far is the journey before malaria is knocked out of Zimbabwe? (or Africa): a commentary

December 17, 2019 - 16:43 -- Open Access
Clive Shiff
Malaria Journal 2019 18:423, 16 December 2019

Recent publications and statements have drawn attention to a sustainable system of managing malaria control interventions globally but especially on the Continent of Africa. Arbitrary and unstable governments often interfere with health programmes, causing upsurges in malaria transmission as well as other health issues. A well-run health infrastructure will deal with public health as a whole.

Effect of malaria on productivity in a workplace: the case of a banana plantation in Zimbabwe

December 9, 2019 - 16:18 -- Open Access
Akim Tafadzwa Lukwa, Richard Mawoyo, Karen Nelwin Zablon, Aggrey Siya and Olufunke Alaba
Malaria Journal 2019 18:390, 3 December 2019

Malaria is known to contribute to reduction in productivity through absenteeism as worker-hours are lost thus impacting company productivity and performance. This paper analysed the impact of malaria on productivity in a banana plantation through absenteeism.

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