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Breaking news from clinical trials with Artemisia plants

January 5, 2016 - 15:30 -- Pierre Lutgen

A team of medical doctors in RDCongo, Jerome Munyangi and Michel Idumbo, have run randomized clinical trials on a large scale in the Maniema province with the participation of some 1000 malaria infected patients. The trials were run in conformity with the WHO procedures and compared Artemisia annua and Artemisia afra with ACTs (Coartem and ASAQ). For all the parameters tested herbal treatment was significantly better than ACTs: faster clearance for fever and parasitemia, absence of parasites on day 28 for 99.5% of the Artemisia treatments and 79.5% only for the ACT treatments. A total absence of side effects was evident for the treatments with the plants, but for the 498 patients treated with ACTs, 210 suffered from diarrhea, and/or nausea, pruritus, hypoglycemia etc. The efficiency was equivalent for Artemisia annua and Artemisia afra. More important even is the observation for the total absence of gametocytes after 7 days treatment with the herb.Similar results on gametocyte elimination had already been observed in Mozambique by B Agosthino in 1998. A tremendous hope for malaria eradication. The results have been communicated to the local health authorities, and to the Ministries of Health and Research in the RDCongo who were supportive of these trials. The draft of a paper is almost ready and will be submitted to a peer reviewed scientific journal.

The financial support for the trials comes from the association MoreforLess in Paris.

This is not the only clinical trial run in 2015 with Artemisia annua aqueous infusions. In Benin the University of Abomey, together with the Universities of Louvain and of Liege, run a large scale trial with Artemisia annua grown in Benin. The trial involved 130 malaria infected patients. Fever clearance was evident after 48 hours and parasitemia decreased by 70% already on the first day, and remained 100 % absent on days 14 and 28. No side effects were noticed. The research team from Benin strongly recommends for African countries to replace the expensive and now often ineffective ACTs by Artemisia annua tea (H Zime-Diawara et al., Int J Biol Chem Sci 2015, 9-2, 692-702).

These results confirm results obtained by the association IFBV-Belherb and her partners in many small scale trials in several African countries over the last 6 years. Therapeutic efficiency always was > 95% and prophylaxy was noticed and documented. The abstracts or peer reviewed papers of all these trials are available on request.

Jérôme Munyangi, Michel Idumbo, Lucile Cornet-Vernet, Pierre Lutgen


Submitted by Pierre Lutgen on

Seeing the positive results from clinical trials in RDCongo and Benin and the involvement of the local health authorities, Yves Saint-Hillier, a French medical doctor sent us a detailed report on similar trials he run in Mali more than 3 years ago. He never disclosed these results because he was afraid that Bigpharma and WHO would interfer. Indeed in 2012 WHO issued a document which prohibits the use of Artemisia annua for the treatment of malaria (WHO Position Statement, June 2012). Our partner wanted to avoid embarrassment and conflict for the local health authorities and aggressive press releases from those who run the ACT business.

Our partner, Dr Saint-Hillier worked with capsules containing powdered leaves from the French Artemisia annua genotype with a content of 0.1 % artemisinin only. A total of 40 000 capsules containing one gram was administered, to adults, children, but also to neonates and pregnant women.
The therapeutic effect of the capsules against fever and other clinical signs of malaria is always very fast. After the rectal application of 500 mg capsules to 100 neonates, sometimes 3 capsules per day, no negative secondary effect was noticed neither for neonates nor pregnant women. The birth weight was increasing to > 3kg and no fatality was noticed after the treatment. In the case of children the absenteeism at school was drastically decreased according to the teachers.

Patients suffering from schistosomiasis and other intestinal diseases were also treated with capsules and the preliminary results were positive.

More details on the procedures and results are available on request.

Artemisia annua plantations have been started in these villages.

Yves Saint-Hillier and Pierre Lutgen

Submitted by Irene Teis on

Wouldn’t it be time to talk openly about other clinical trials which have been run in Africa by courageous medical doctors, but who did not dare to publish them in scientific journals because they were running the risk to lose their job or funding or even worse. This is the case for Emilien Fouda in Cameroon, Adelaide Agostinho In Mozambique, Romain Dangbame in Benin, Ibrahima Diop in Senegal, Mamadou Darboe in the Gambia, Constant Tchandema in Katanga with Artemisia afra, Ingo Vicens in Burundi, Elke Steinacher in Senegal, Dr Veronique Chabusiku in Kinshasa, Mechthild Keller and Hannelore Klabes with Artemisia afra in Tanzania, Gebeyaw Tiruneh in Ethiopia, Ahmed Hassanali in Kenya, Dr Felicitas Roelofsen in India, Lucy Kangethe in Kenya, Fondation Rosa Alfieri in Senegal, Mathias Daoudou in Cameroon.

Some results have been published in peer reviewed papers. Michel Onimus on the positive effect of Artemisia annua during surgery (M Onimus et al., Med Aromat Plants 2013, 2:125), Patrick Ogwang on prophylaxy (P Ogwang et al., Brit J Pharmac Res. 2011, 1, 124-132 and in Trop J Pharmac Res. 2012, 13, 445-453) and Omar Gueye on ex vivo trials (O Gueye et al., Afr J Bioch Res. 2013, 7, 107-113) and those presented by Rosine Chougouo from Cameroon at the MIM conference at Nairobi in October 2009.

The extraordinary results of the large scale, randomized, double blind trials in Maniema by the team of Dr Jerôme Munyangi confirm all these preliminary, partial results and leave little doubt: herbal treatment with Artemisia annua and Artemisia afra is superior to treatment with the ACTs Coartem or Coarsucam.

The South is going to win this battle against the North and save its children from a lucrative genocide

Submitted by Lucile Cornet-Vernet (not verified) on

WHO should have done this trial a long time ago...Daily Artemisia herbal tea save lives for nothing, no money or at least not. Who get interest by carrying on medecine aigainst Malaria which create drug resistance and cost hundreds of millions dollars ? When this criminal hypocrisy will end ? Wake up everybody ! Artemisia annua and afra Herbal tea work much better than ACT ! Artemisia afra has NO artemisinin and cure malaria ... Yes it does and this trial prove it ! We have to change our mind : Herbal tea can cure ... Wake up !

Submitted by Kizito Richard (not verified) on

I have been living in a rural Uganda community where Artemis planted, what should be the best practice to apply this useful plant.
Kindly avail me what should be the best methods and why.

Submitted by Pierre Lutgen on

Our partners who run the successfull clinical trials with Artemisia tea in Maniema were invited to present these results in a public conference in RDCongo. The conference was confronted with opposition and lobbying by Bigpharma.
The conference finally took place under military escort.

A month before, during the trials in Maniema one of the medical doctors who run the trials had to be hospitalized. An obvious attempt had been made to kill him with poison.
We admire the courage of these young African doctors. A team of 7 African universities is behind them, a team of 3 universities in Southafrica, several universities and medical associations in Europe and thousands of Africans who have seen that Artemisia herbal treatment saved their lives at no cost.

We had suffered a similar prohibition in Burundi. The local association ALUMA and the association IFBV-BELHERB from Europe had organized a conference on the Malaria day of April 25. 2014. The conference was canceled by the local health authorities under influence from the Bigpharma lobby, on the day before the event !

We all ask Bigpharma to stop these ridiculous manoeuvers. Or is WHO, their watchdog, repeating the unfamous attempt of the Vatican to eliminate Galileo. In those dark ages it was only hampering the wealth of the Medicis. In our civilized century this greed threatens the live of millions of children.
Pierre Lutgen

Since Michel Onimus trials in RCA we used successfully Artemisia Annua since many years to prevent post-operative malaria during our surgical missions in Tchad.
Artemisia Annua is efficient against Malaria !

Since Michel Onimus trials in RCA we used successfully Artemisia Annua since many years to prevent post-operative malaria during our surgical missions in Tchad.
Artemisia Annua is efficient against Malaria !

Submitted by Guy Mergeai (not verified) on

The trial criticized by the health authorities of the DRC was conducted according to a very robust scientific methodology and its results confirm those obtained less formally by many field workers in other parts of the world.

Science is based on conducting experiments not on dogma. The fact that the tea of Artemisia afra is as effective as that of Artemisia annua proves that artemisinin is not essential to treat malaria and that other active ingredients present in numererous species of Artemisisa play a role. Pretending that Artemisia tea can promote the development of resistance to ACT is thus totally fallacious.

The safety of Artemisia teas being documented for many years, nothing should prevent their widespread use to save thousands of lives.

For all this, what is happening in Kinshasa is outrageous.

Guy Mergeai, PhD

Submitted by Michel ONIMUS (not verified) on

It seems that we are facing a chronic very unfair opposition from official administrations about the use of artemisia annua tea for treatment and prophylaxis of malaria. WHO stresses the importance of large-scale randomized objective trials for evaluation of the effectiveness of tea preparation compared to ACT. Actually a very recent clinical double blinded randomized trial is just under publication. It was conducted in RDC and included a very large group of 1000 patients. This is probably the larger study available to-day evaluating the artemisia annua tea in malaria. The results definitely confirm that the tea is more effective than ACT and this trial brings very strong arguments for developping the use of artemisia annua.

WHO should modify its statement and no further prohibit use of Artemisia annua tea as an effective (and moreover unexpensive and easily available) way of treatment of malaria.

Submitted by Philippe ANDRIEUX (not verified) on

J'accuse !!

Le terrorisme sanitaire existe !
Le terrorisme sanitaire ne s'appelle pas DAECH mais BIGPHARMA !
BIGPHARMA comprend dans sa mafia l'OMS, Institut Pasteur, MSF.
Bigpharma corrompt les autorités sanitaires pour que ses produits restent en tête de gondole.
Bigpharma menace les comités d'écoles de santé en Afrique pour qu'ils désapprouvent les jeunes chercheurs africains qui s'investissent corps et âmes dans les alternatives thérapeutiques contre le paludisme entre autre avec l'artémisia plante totum.
Bigpharma par la voix de l'OMS menace de suspendre l'appui et l'assistance aux ministères de la santé s'ils ne sévissent pas contre ses jeunes chercheurs qui s'investissent dans la lutte contre un génocide programmé au nom de l'intérêt financier pur et dur.
Ceci n'est pas une fiction, ceci est la réalité actuellement en RDC !

Nous médecins au service de la santé des peuples nous accusons BIGPHARM de manipulations politico-financières au détriment de l'être humain et à l'encontre de toute éthique.

Submitted by Pierre Lutgen on

A recent paper highlights the neurotoxic effects of AZT on developing and adult neurogenesis (M Demir, Frontiers in Neuroscience, 2015, 6-93). This is another disastrous side effect of these drugs (see the blog “Antiretrovirals and antimalarials: a deadly mix” on
The authors employed in vitro and in vivo models of mouse neurogenesis in order to assess the effects of AZT on developing and adult neurogenesis. AZT reduces the expansion potential of neural stem/progenitor cells by inducing senescence. AZT reduces neurosphere size. AZT severily attenuates neuroblast production. These effects are mirrored in vivo, in utero, perturbing prenatal and postnatal neurogenesis.
It is surprising that little attention has been paid to these effects. They may have clinical implications pertaining to cognitive deficits. It has indeed been reported that long-time delivery of AZT is associated with poor neurocognitive performance in HIV patients (MM Marra et al., AIDS, 2009, 23, 1359-1366).
Could it be that microcephaly and neuro-immune deficiency is caused by an antiviral drug and not by a virus?

Submitted by Pierre Lutgen on

At this stage it must be clearly documented that with our African partners we had made all possible efforts to obtain the agreement for clinical trials with Artemisia annua. On January 2012 we made our way to Canossa, i.e, the WHO offices at Geneva. The meeting was attended by Andrea Bosman, Peter Olumese, Pascal Ringwald, Amy Barette, Charlotte Rasmussen, Marian Warsame, Silvia Schwarte, Lise Riopel from WHO, by Jean-Jacques Schul, Yanick Arlabosse-Titz and Blaise Guiakora from IDAY and Pierre Lutgen from IFBV-BELHERB. We presented a power point with all the encouraging results already obtained in small scale trials in Kenya, Uganda, Senegal, Cameroon, The Gambia. We left the meeting full of hope but a month later we received a written document with a formal prohibition any further clinical trials with Artemisia annua.

On January 15, 2012 we had already had a meeting at the Institute for Tropical Diseases (ITG) in Antwerp with Jef Van den Ende. We did not expect very much from that particular meeting knowing that in a Belgian law (29.7.1997) Artemisia annua is classified as dangerous herb. In 2008 Dr P Wery from the ITG had violently opposed our work with Artemisia annua in Africa in the magazine Rotary Contact. And in 2010 the Fonds National de la Recherche in Luxembourg had rejected the funding of a Ph D thesis grant for Omar Gueye in Senegal.

The opinion of a Belgian expert had killed the project: “This kind of project could never be published in a scientific journal. Supporting such a project is certainly NOT something that will give Luxembourg a good reputation in science”.
Pierre Lutgen

Submitted by Dominique Chardonnet (not verified) on

"Ce monde et ses dirigeants ne cessent de m'inquiéter. Leur combat contre l'objectivité et les règles qu'ils nous imposent tourne à la bêtise et nous conduit furtivement à la tragédie. Des disciples de la déontologie médicale sont aujourd'hui menacés simplement parce que les résultats de leurs études contredisent les intérêts de la puissante organisation des laboratoires pharmaceutiques soutenue elle-même par une espèce d'oligarchie internationale réunie au sein de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé.

Les résultats des travaux réalisés par des chercheurs accrédités au Congo confirment les avantages d'une phytothérapie efficace contre le paludisme en regard des inconvénients d'une bi-thérapie (ACT) qui n'est pas formellement remise en cause par cette étude puisque la-dite bi-thérapie permet aussi la guérison de ce terrible fléau. Comment comprendre alors que des voix s'élèvent, que des censures s'imposent, que des manoeuvres d'intimidation se forment autour des auteurs d'une étude qui ne révèle finalement que de possibles complémentarités? Que les adeptes des ACT se rassurent et acceptent l'existence d'une thérapie simple produisant le même effet, à savoir la guérison.

Que l'on puisse s'en prendre aujourd'hui aux démonstrateurs de cette réalité est purement intolérable et indigne du genre humain. Les Autorités quelles qu'elles soient doivent s'insurger (pour le moins autant que le soussigné) et réagir avec fermeté contre toute forme d'intimidation et d'obscurantisme scientifique.

S'il devait se produire quoi que ce soit de fâcheux pour les auteurs de cette étude au seul motif de ses résultats, je ne me le pardonnerais jamais et je m'engagerais personnellement, le cas échéant, à saisir les instances internationales afin de rétablir le droit et réclamer justice.

Dominique Chardonnet

Président de « Palumisia Sénégal »" Suisse

Submitted by ROCHDI Fatima (not verified) on

What is happening in Kinshasa regarding the verified opportunity to save lives at low cost and the choice made to make money and protect the private interrests of the corporation is a shame.
I support the research team and condamn the position taken by the authorities in RDC and by WHO.

Artemisia annua : Soutien au Dr. Jérôme et son équipe à Maniema, RDC
La nature nous a fait don de plusieurs espèces de plantes pour nous nourrir, nous soigner…depuis des millénaires. Les vertus médicinales de l’Artemisia sont connues depuis si longtemps qu'on en a retrouvé des écrits sur un papyrus égyptien remontant à 1600 avant J.C et dans un texte de l’Ancien Testament. Elle était connue et recommandée par les Celtes ; les Arabes l'utilisaient et les médecins de l'Antiquité la considéraient comme la panacée.
Mais il y a des hommes qui ne pensent qu’à amasser de l’argent, sur le dos des pauvres, en les forçant à utiliser des remèdes chimiques au lieu des herbes médicinales offertes gratuitement par la nature.
Nous sommes surpris et tristes d'apprendre que sous l’influence de lobbys extérieurs les auteurs des études sur Artemisia annua en RDC ne soient pas bien écoutés par les autorités de Maniema et la représentation nationale de l’OMS.
Séverin Tchibozo, CRGB, Godomey, BENIN

Submitted by emile schmitz (not verified) on

In 2013 Frank Van der Kooy published a review paper in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology entitled "The complexity of medicinal plants: The traditional Artemisia annua formulation, current status and future perspectives"
He compared the positions of those who promote the herbal medicine with those who sell ACTs . He invited partners of both approaches to join the discussion.
In his acknowledgements he states: we would like to thank Dr. Pierre Lutgen from IFBV-BELHERB and Dr. Martin Hirt from Anamed for comments on this manuscript. Unfortunately no comments were received from the WHO African office.
Unfortunately everybody agrees that science is asking questions and confronting opinions and findings.

Emile Schmitz

Submitted by Irene Teis on

We just received the following message from Jerome Munyangi who run with Michel Idumbo the successfull clinical trials Artemisia vs ACT in Maniema:

Bonjour , Juste vous informer que Michel vient d'être suspendu de son poste de médecin directeur.
L'inévitable est arrivé.

These two young African doctors knew the risks they were taking. We admire them. The future of Africa is in their hands, not in those of the subservient medical staff in Geneva.

Submitted by Paul NYEMB NTOOGUE (not verified) on

Je suis vraiment très amusés par ce que vivent des chercheurs comme Jerome Munyangi et Michel Idumbo qui, avec d'autres dynamiques, se sont engagés à combattre le paludisme en Afrique de manière efficiente et sure. Qu'ils aient des ennuis de la part d'une certaine maffia qui tient encore les populations africaines sous le joug des produits de firmes pharmaceutiques occidentales n'est qu'une abjection. Ces firmes qui font pressions sur nos autorités ne constatent elles donc pas que l'Afrique change depuis peu et les populations qui connaissent déjà la vérité sur bien de complots contre elles, n'ignorent plus aujourd'hui l'importance des plantes médicinales comme l'artémisia annua?
Nous leur conseillons d'arrêter les pressions sur ces chercheurs dont les travaux sont plutôt connus des populations et salués par plusieurs communautés et dans bien de pays. Les révolution ne seront pas toujours à votre avantages

Submitted by Marc Vanacker (not verified) on

Suite à un début de publication d'une grande étude randomisée concernant le traitement du paludisme par les plantes (Artémisia annua et Artémisia afra) sur une grande échelle (1000 patients) dans la province de Maniema en RDC; étude menée par Jérôme MUNYANGI chercheur en biologie moléculaire et docteur Michel IDUMBO responsable sanitaire de la province de Maniema, soutenus par un comité d'école de santé publique.

Depuis ce début de publication la guerre de l'ombre a commencé.
• Jérôme MUNYANGI a été victime d'un empoisonnement qui a failli lui coûter la vie
• le comité d'école de santé publique est menacé si des mesures ne sont pas prises à l'encontre des auteurs de l'étude
• l'OMS menace de suspendre l'appui et l'assistance au ministère de santé du Maniéma si des mesures ne sont pas prises contre les auteurs de l'étude
• Le docteur Michel IDUMBO à été démis de ses fonctions.

Comment interpréter ses manipulations politiques alors que l'étude est en conformité avec les procédures de l'OMS comparant Artémisia annua et Artémisia afra avec les ACT (Coartem et ASAQ)

Tous les paramètres des traitements à base des plantes artémisia annua et afra étaient significativement supérieurs aux ACT:
 baisse plus rapide de la fièvre, de la parasitémie.
 absence de parasite à j25 pour 99.5% des traitements par artémisia contre 79.5% pour ACT.
 une absence totale d'effet secondaire pour les traitements par Artemisia alors que pour les 498 patients sous ACT, 210 ont présenté des effets secondaires:(diarrhée, nausée, prurit, hypogycémie)
 absence totale de gamétocyte à J7 pour les traitements par artémisia annua et afra.

Ceci est un grand espoir pour l'éradication du paludisme.

Un essai identique a été réalisé au Bénin à l'université d'Abomey en collaboration avec les universités de Louvain et de Liège (Belgique); étude sur 130 patients avec des résultats similaires.
Le Bénin recommande fortement aux pays africains de remplacer les ACT par la tisane d'artémisia.

Ces études confirment les résultats obtenus par l'association IFBV - Belherb (Luxembourg) et ses partenaires dans de nombreux essais à petite échelle dans plusieurs pays africains au cours des 6 dernières années. L'efficacité a toujours était supérieure à 95% et l'efficacité de la prophylaxie a été remarquée et documentée.

Comment interpréter cette négations des faits par l'OMS sinon par une manipulation politico financière de Bigpharma.

Les résistances aux ACT existent depuis 2008 en Asie et aussi dans 10 pays africains du Sud Est ainsi que dans les grands ports africains

200 millions de personnes souffrent du paludisme.
800 000 personnes en meurent chaque année dont 90% sont des enfants et 80% des décès concernent l'Afrique.
Le paludisme coûte 1.7 points de croissance à l'Afrique par an.

Comment ne pas s'insurger face à ce gangstérisme pharmaceutique dont l'avidité financière menace la vie de millions d'enfants.
Les seigneurs de la guerre existent; ils s'appellent Big brothers.
Les seigneurs du médicament existent; ils s'appellent Big pharma.
Cette puissante organisation des laboratoires pharmaceutique est soutenue par une oligarchie internationale réunie au sein de l'OMS Organisation Mondiale de la Santé.

Philippe, médecin à l'île d'Yeu

Submitted by Marc Vanacker (not verified) on

Toll, dass es mal wieder einen schriftlichen Aufstand gibt gegen die Nein Sager des Grundgesetzes: „Das Recht eines jeden Menschen auf Gesundheit“.
Die von der Natur uns geschenkten Heilkräuter, wie unter anderem auch Artemisia annua und afra, mit den vielseitigen Wirkstoffen dürfen den Menschen als Tee Anwendung nicht untersagt werden, genau wie ich die Heilkräuter Kamille, Melisse, Salbei usw. für meine Gesunderhaltung verwende. Wer unsere Naturheilkräuter zur Anwendung unserer Gesundheit boykottieren oder behindern will ist ein Menschenverächter in meinem Sinn. Ich weiß nicht ob die Verantwortlichen mit so einem Gefühl ruhig schlafen können?

Hannelore Klabes

Submitted by Anonymized User (not verified) on

Los resultados de la aplicación de la Artemisia Annua cultivada en Centro Poblado Andino de Monchacap, Provincia de Otuzco, Departamento de La Libertad - Perú como Infusión y como Sahumerio, ejecutados en los siguientes proyectos y en zonas endémicas de la malaria como el Distrito de Laredo, Departamento de La Libertad, Región Costa, los Distritos de Abancay y Tamburgo en el Departamento de Apurímac, Región Sierra y en el Distrito de Bagua Chica del Departamento de Amazonas, Región de la Selva, confirman los logros obtenidos por la ASOCIACION IFBV BELHERB Y SUS SOCIOS en muchos ensayos diversos a pequeña escala en Perú y varios países africanos durante los últimos 8 años.

Con una eficiencia terapéutica siempre alta que ha sido documentada.
Los resúmenes o documentos elaborados por las contrapartes como la ONG CIADES de Peru en todas estas aplicaciones, experimentos y ensayos están disponibles en nuestros registros bajo petición.

Raúl Fernando Pérez Villar

Presidente Ejecutivo

Submitted by Pierre Lutgen on

The frustration of the young Africans who are fighting the battle against malaria with their means is understandable. Indeed the position of WHO is confusing. The document “WHO Traditional Medicine Strategy 2014-2023” encourages herbal medicine but is contradicted by “WHO Position Statement (June 2012). Effectiveness of Non-Pharmaceutical Forms of Artemisia annua L. against malaria” which prohibits the use of this herb.

The latter is based on assumptions and precautions which have meanwhile been resolved. The content of dry leaves is stable for at least 3 years, even up to 10 when stored in a dry and ventilated place. Artemisia annua infusions or capsules with powdered leaves do not lead to resistance, they even can overcome resistance induced by ACTs, as demonstrated by Pamela Weathers in the US. The dose of artemisinin of 20 mg/kg as prescribed in WHO/MAL/98.1086 appears to be by far too high. 100 x lower concentrations delivered by the whole plant are very efficient. The plant Artemisia afra which does not contain artemisinin is as efficient as Artemisia annua, and in the recent large scale, double blind, randomized trial in Maniema-Congo no residual parasitemia, no resistance could be detected after 28 days. All these encouraging findings are substantiated by numerous peer reviewed papers or open documents.

The role of WHO is to coordinate all these efforts. Maybe it is time for this international organization to convene a meeting of the parties, to call the African research teams and European research laboratories around a table.
Our door is open.

Lucile Cornet-Vernet
Pierre Lutgen

Submitted by Keith Lindsey on

I would like to thank Pierre Lutgen and all other colleagues who have conducted clinical trials on Artemisia annua and Artemisia afra. Regarding Artemisia annua their results echo the comments I have received from many people at the grass roots in several African countries. I am particularly excited by the results with Artemisia afra, which is indigenous in much of sub Saharan Africa. Many have asked my advice regarding malaria treatment with A. afra, and I have always suggested that A. annua is probably safer because it has been the subject of much more research.
I am delighted that I can now recommend with confidence that they cultivate and use their own local Artemisia afra to treat malaria and thus end their reliance on imported seeds.

Submitted by Anonymized User (not verified) on

25 000 children are killed every day in tropical countries by malaria, diarrhea, leishmaniasis, bilharziosis, Trypanosoma, Chagas, dengue, toxoplasma, tuberculosis…
This hecatomb is ignored by the media because these neglected diseases in neglected populations are of little interest.

But every 2 years the media jump on a hype launched by Bigpharma and immediately orchestrated by WHO, very soon joined by UNICEF and MSF and Bill&Melinda. Always the risk is assessed in its incidence for people from the North, be it tourists or children. When enough money has been collected from our governments, enough drugs like Tamiflu have been sold the hype and the disease disappear.

But a finding like the one described in this blog “Breaking news from Congo” will not appear in our press. It would kill the business with pharmaceutical companies.

Thiery Guiakoro

Submitted by Irene Teis on


The impact of organophosphates on head circumference is known since 2004. A study involving 404 neanates in the U.S. found a significant positive trend between head circumference, in utero pesticide exposure and the concentration of organophospate metabolites in offspring (GS Berkowitz et al., Envir Health Perspect. 2004, 112-3).
The impact of low level exposure to organosphosphates on human reproduction and survival (RJ Peiris-John et al., Trans Royal Soc Trop Med and Hyg. 2008, 102, 239-245) has also been studied in Sri Lanka. During fetal growth and early childhood the vulnerabilty to organophosphates is high. The review raises concerns that exposure at levels currently regarded as save adversely affect human reproductive function and survival.

Of greater concern are the findings from in vitro and animal studies that low-dose exposure to embryonic cells or animals in utero or in early postnatal life can produce neurochemical and neurobehavioral changes, including decreased DNA synthesis, decreased cell proliferation, changes in synoptic proliferation, and reflex impairment. This has led to the suggestion that the developing brain provides a window of particular vulnerability to pesticide exposure during the fetal and childhood period. A study involving 381 infants in California showed that high urinary organophosphate metabolite levels were associated with an increase in abnormal reflexes (JG Young et al., Neurotoxicology 2005, 206, 199-209). Another study reports a significant correlation between low levels of urinary pesticide metabolites and neurobehavioral function in U.S. farmers (J Rothlein et al., Environ Health Perspect. 2006 ; 114(5): 691–696)


In the US indoor use of organophosphates is prohibited since 2000. But sales of the same pesticides are booming in Africa and South America, with the blessiing of WHO, Global Fund, USAID and Bill&Melinda.
WHO recommends the organophosphates malathion (Class 2A carcinogen), fenitrothion and piriphosmethyl for indoor residual spraying (IRS).
In 2013 a large scale (IRS) with the organophosphate Pirimiphos was run in Benin, sponsored by the Gates Foundation (M Rowland et al., PlosONE, 2013, doi 10137)
A more recent IRS trial worth £1 880 990 with long-lasting organophosphate, run by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine again sponsored to a large extent by Bill Gates.
Irene Teis

Submitted by Anonymized User (not verified) on

Irene, (or moderators) please delete this post. It is inaccurate, misleading and sensationalist.

There is no evidence what-so-ever that Zika related microcephaly has any associated with any pesticides.

Moreover, the pesticide (INCORRECTLY) implicated in Zika associated microcephaly is not even an organophosphate.

This site is dedicated to professional, evidence-based discussions, and not misinformed propaganda.

Bart G.J. Knols's picture
Submitted by Bart G.J. Knols on

The moderators have contacted Irene about this comment. Thank you and best wishes, Bart

Submitted by Irene Teis on

Hereafter the fulltext abstracts of the 3 papers quoted for neurotoxical effects of pesticides and organophosphates.
If my interpretation is incorrect the blog should indeed be removed. But any hypothesis in science should first be questionned and than be proven to be wrong, dixit Karl Popper.

Environ Health Perspect. 2006 May;114(5):691-6.
Organophosphate pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral performance in agricultural and non-agricultural Hispanic workers.
Rothlein J1, Rohlman D, Lasarev M, Phillips J, Muniz J, McCauley L.
Our understanding of the health risks of farmworkers exposed to pesticides in their work and home environments is rapidly increasing, although studies designed to examine the possible neurobehavioral effects of low-level chronic pesticide exposure are limited. We measured dialkyl phosphate urinary metabolite levels, collected environmental dust samples from a subset of homes, obtained information on work practices, and conducted neurobehavioral tests on a sample of farmworkers in Oregon. Significant correlations between urinary methyl metabolite levels and total methyl organophosphate (azinphos-methyl, phosmet, malathion) house dust levels were observed. We found the neurobehavioral performance of Hispanic immigrant farmworkers to be lower than that observed in a nonagricultural Hispanic immigrant population, and within the sample of agricultural workers there was a positive correlation between urinary organophosphate metabolite levels and poorer performance on some neurobehavioral tests. These findings add to an increasing body of evidence of the association between low levels of pesticide exposure and deficits in neurobehavioral performance.

Environ Health Perspect. 2004 Mar;112(3):388-91.
In utero pesticide exposure, maternal paraoxonase activity, and head circumference.
Berkowitz GS1, Wetmur JG, Birman-Deych E, Obel J, Lapinski RH, Godbold JH, Holzman IR, Wolff MS.
Although the use of pesticides in inner-city homes of the United States is of considerable magnitude, little is known about the potentially adverse health effects of such exposure. Recent animal data suggest that exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and early life may impair growth and neurodevelopment in the offspring. To investigate the relationship among prenatal pesticide exposure, paraoxonase (PON1) polymorphisms and enzyme activity, and infant growth and neurodevelopment, we are conducting a prospective, multiethnic cohort study of mothers and infants delivered at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City. In this report we evaluate the effects of pesticide exposure on birth weight, length, head circumference, and gestational age among 404 births between May 1998 and May 2002. Pesticide exposure was assessed by a prenatal questionnaire administered to the mothers during the early third trimester as well as by analysis of maternal urinary pentachlorophenol levels and maternal metabolites of chlorpyrifos and pyrethroids. Neither the questionnaire data nor the pesticide metabolite levels were associated with any of the fetal growth indices or gestational age. However, when the level of maternal PON1 activity was taken into account, maternal levels of chlorpyrifos above the limit of detection coupled with low maternal PON1 activity were associated with a significant but small reduction in head circumference. In addition, maternal PON1 levels alone, but not PON1 genetic polymorphisms, were associated with reduced head size. Because small head size has been found to be predictive of subsequent cognitive ability, these data suggest that chlorpyrifos may have a detrimental effect on fetal neurodevelopment among mothers who exhibit low PON1 activity.

Neurotoxicology. 2005 Mar;26(2):199-209.
Association between in utero organophosphate pesticide exposure and abnormal reflexes in neonates.
Young JG1, Eskenazi B, Gladstone EA, Bradman A, Pedersen L, Johnson C, Barr DB, Furlong CE, Holland NT.
The detrimental effects of organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure on neurodevelopment have been shown in animals. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between in utero and early postnatal OP exposure and neonatal neurobehavior in humans, as measured by seven clusters (habituation, orientation, motor performance, range of state, regulation of state, autonomic stability, and reflex) on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS). We assessed 381 infants < or = 2 months old and born to women participating in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study, a longitudinal, birth cohort study of low-income, Latina women living in the agricultural community of the Salinas Valley, California. Exposure to OP pesticides was determined by urinary levels of dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites, including dimethyl and diethylphosphate metabolites, measured twice during pregnancy (M = 14 and 26 weeks gestation) and once post-delivery (M = 7 days postpartum). The relationship between exposure and BNBAS performance was examined for the entire sample and stratified by the median age at assessment, 3 days. We observed a significant association between exposure and the reflex cluster for the entire sample and for infants >3 days old (n = 184). Among the >3 day old infants, increasing average prenatal urinary metabolite levels were associated with both an increase in number of abnormal reflexes (total DAP: adjusted beta = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.23, 0.82; dimethyls: adjusted beta = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.12, 0.69; diethyls: adjusted beta = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.09, 0.64), and the proportion of infants with more than three abnormal reflexes (total DAP: adjusted OR = 4.9, 95% CI = 1.5, 16.1; dimethyls: adjusted OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.1, 9.8; diethyls: adjusted OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.2, 9.9). No detrimental associations were found between postnatal urinary metabolite levels and any of the BNBAS clusters for infants < or = 3 or >3 days old at assessment. Whether neonatal reflex functioning is predictive of neuropsychological functioning as the child matures will continue to be evaluated in this birth cohort.

Submitted by Marc Vanacker (not verified) on

It is disturbing that scientific papers quoted on are so violently attacked and that the authors are asked to delete them.
Chlorpyrifos, the main pesticide incriminated for microcephaly, in the Berkowitz paper, is an organophosphate.
Chlorpyrifos is massively used in Brazil, We should show empathy for the
4000 mothers who have children with microcephaly and not reject any hypothesis to study possible causes.
Chlorpyrifos should be banned, be it only by precaution. Because there are numerous papers which describe its neurotoxic effects.

: A systematic review · María Teresa Muñoz-Quezada , Boris A. Lucero
doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2013.09.003 [5]
Many studies have investigated the neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal and early childhood exposures to organophosphate (OP) pesticides among children, but they have not been collectively evaluated. The aim of the present article is to synthesize reported evidence over the last decade on OP exposure and neurodevelopmental effects in children. The Data Sources were PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO, SciVerse Scopus, SpringerLink, SciELO and DOAJ. The eligibility criteria considered were studies assessing exposure to OP pesticides and neurodevelopmental effects in children from birth to 18 years of age, published between 2002 and 2012 in English or Spanish. Twenty-seven articles met the eligibility criteria. Studies were rated for evidential consideration as high, intermediate, or low based upon the study design, number of participants, exposure measurement, and neurodevelopmental measures. All but one of the 27 studies evaluated showed some negative effects of pesticides on neurobehavioral development. A positive dose–response relationship between OP exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes was found in all but one of the 12 studies that assessed dose–response. In the ten longitudinal studies that assessed prenatal exposure to OPs, cognitive deficits (related to working memory) were found in children at age 7 years, behavioral deficits (related to
attention) seen mainly in toddlers, and motor deficits (abnormal
reflexes) seen mainly in neonates. No meta-analysis was possible due to different measurements of exposure assessment and outcomes. Eleven studies (all longitudinal) were rated high, 14 studies were rated intermediate, and two studies were rated low. Evidence of neurological deficits associated with exposure to OP pesticides in children is growing. The studies reviewed collectively support the hypothesis that exposure to OP pesticides induces neurotoxic effects. Further research is needed to understand effects associated with exposure in critical windows of development.

Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Volume 34, Issue 2 [6], March–April 2012, Pages 232–241
· Theodore A. Slotkin [7], , · Frederic J. Seidler
Developmental organophosphate exposure reduces the numbers of neural cells, contributing to neurobehavioral deficits. We administered chlorpyrifos or diazinon to newborn rats on postnatal days 1–4, in doses straddling the threshold for barely-detectable cholinesterase inhibition, and evaluated gene expression in the cell cycle and apoptosis pathways on postnatal day 5. Both organophosphates evoked transcriptional changes in 20–25% of the genes in each category; chlorpyrifos and diazinon targeted the same genes, with similar magnitudes of change, as evidenced by high concordance. Furthermore, the same effects were obtained with doses above or below the threshold for cholinesterase inhibition, indicating a mechanism unrelated to anticholinesterase actions. We then evaluated the effects of chlorpyrifos in undifferentiated and differentiating PC12 cells and found even greater targeting of cell cycle and apoptosis genes, affecting up to 40% of all genes in the pathways. Notably, the genes affected in undifferentiated cells were not concordant with those in differentiating cells, pointing to dissimilar outcomes dependent on developmental stage. The in vitro model successfully identified 60–70% of the genes affected by chlorpyrifos in vivo, indicating that the effects are exerted directly on developing neural cells. Our results show that organophosphates target the genes regulating the cell cycle and apoptosis in the developing brain and in neuronotypic cells in culture, with the pattern of vulnerability dependent on the specific stage of development. Equally important, these effects do not reflect actions on cholinesterase and operate at exposures below the threshold for any detectable inhibition of this enzyme

Bart G.J. Knols's picture
Submitted by Bart G.J. Knols on

Dear all,
The original focus of this posting was on Artemisia. Now you are taking this in an entirely new direction with a discussion on the possible side effects of pesticide use. May I ask you to start a separate forum topic on this, so that the discussion on Artemisia can continue here.
Many thanks,

Submitted by Anonymized User (not verified) on

In answer to your question posted on malariaworld:

Quote "I have been living in a rural Uganda community where Artemisia is planted, what should be the best practice to apply this useful plant.
Kindly avail me what should be the best methods and why"

You are fortunate to have one of the best Artemisia experts in Uganda, Pr Patrick Ogwang from the Makerere university.
He has published several scientific papers on this subject.
You may contact him at or
He has also developed the prophylactic product ARTAVOL

Avec tambours et trompettes, Bill Gates associé pour l’occasion à la Grande Bretagne ont récemment annoncé un plan de plusieurs milliards de dollars pour éradiquer la malaria… Le Cameroun va bénéficier d’une subvention de 77 millions d’euros du Fonds Mondial pour distribuer 15,8 millions de moustiquaires…

Sans trop s’attarder sur les liens étroits qui unissent la richissime fondation Bill & Melinda Gates et l’industrie pharmaceutique (+/-1,5 milliards de dollars d’actions), sans trop s’attarder sur les flops des précédentes distributions de moustiquaires au Cameroun ni sur ses effets secondaires néfastes scientifiquement prouvés, on est en droit de se demander qui sont les grands gagnants de ces campagnes coûteuses. Je vous laisse à vos réflexions !

HUBERT (de Luxembourg)

Submitted by Irene Teis on

What we learned from participants at the Pharmacognosy conference Aug- 29-31 at Sao Paolo is disturbing. The conference ended in chaos.

A professor from Ireland qualified clinical trials made by African researchers and medical doctors as appalling. These large scale, randomized, double blind trials with Artemisia annua and Artemisia afra gave exciting results. They showed the superiority against malaria of the plants over artemisinin combined therapy ACT drugs, without any side effects, any recurrence and complete absence of gametocytemia on day 28 after the treatment (see www.malariaworld.or « Breaking News from Clinical Trials with Artemisia Plants »). And these plants are also very efficient against Bilharzia, Tuberculosis and Buruli ulcer as trials run in 2016 have shown in RDCongo, with the blessing of the health authorities and full-fledged ethical approvals.

At the entire conference Africans were the only speakers who presented large scale double blind, randomized in vivo clinical trials in several African countries against several tropical diseases with Artemisia plants. They are part of an international network of 17 universities in partnership with IFBV-BELHERB and M4L.

Most of the other presentations were dealing with analytical work or in vitro trials with plants from tropical countries. Northern laboratories pay visits to tropical countries to learn about the traditional use of plants, return to their universities, fiddle with these plants to find molecules which can be used by Bigpharma in monotherapy.

Professors and researchers from European universities still consider their own approach, their cleverness far superior to that of Africans. In a public conference they lecture them like elementary school teachers. With contempt.

It is easy to understand that the African breakthroughs with phytotherapy frustrate and exasperate Bigpharma. They will lose their juicy business with tropical diseases.

Submitted by Marc Vanacker (not verified) on

Pharmaceutical colonialism
If this Irish Professor coordinating the Pharmacognosy conference is from the Trinity College, or Collegium Sanctae Individuae Trinitatis, he must know this sentence from the Bible “ Deposuit potentes de sede, et exaltavit humiles” : He hath put down the mighty from their seats, and raised up those who are lowly.

Submitted by Checker (not verified) on

The last depends on suppositions and safeguards which have in the interim been settled. The substance of dry leaves is steady for no less than 3 years, even up to 10 when put away in a dry and ventilated place Goog. Artemisia annua imbuements or cases with powdered leaves don't prompt protection, they even can defeat protection incited by ACTs, as exhibited by Pamela Weathers in the US.

Submitted by Pierre Lutgen on

Artemisia annua and Artemisia afra tea infusions vs. artesunate-amodiaquine(ASAQ) in treating Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a large scale, double blind, randomized clinical trial.

Jérôme Munyangi, Lucile Cornet-Vernet, Michel Idumbo, Chen Lu, Pierre Lutgen, Christian Perronne, Nadège Ngombe, Jacques Bianga, Bavon Mupenda, Paul Lalukala, Guy Mergeai, Dieudonné Mumba, Melissa Towler, Pamela Weathers

Phytomedicine, 57, 2019, 49-56.

Full text available on request

Submitted by Anonymized User (not verified) on

Eric Orsenna is a famous French writer of bestsellers and even member of the glorious “Académie Française”.

God knows why as a layperson in tropical diseases he wrote this additional beststeller “Géopolitique du Moustique (ed Fayard) on a very complex and dramatic topic. During two years he toured the world on a mission sponsored by the Institut Pasteur and Sanofi ( Since many years Sanofi is a major shareholder in the Institut Pasteur (Le Monde, 15 mai 1980)

Monsieur Orsena! No, malaria is not an interesting story but a dramatic failure of WHO & Global Fund & Gates

Or, a bloody business and a genocide for Africa as the film “Malaria Business” of Bernard Crutzen (TV0 and RTBF) has shown.

The book is a masterpiece of vulgarization, because the majority of people in the Northern hemisphere don’t know what malaria is, how it is transmitted and eventually cured, what dramatic effects it has on education and economy in African countries.

Malaria is a complex disease, the suffering for populations in the South is unbelievable, Western approaches have failed to eradicate de disease. It is even on the raise in many countries as WHO has recognized recently.

So, after reading the book and communicating some of my concerns to partners heavily involved in malaria research, I received comments which are devastating for Orsenna’s book.

He bluntly ignores the numerous and successful clinical trials, small and large, made by several African research teams with Artemisia. When he talks about the Viet Cong he fails to recognize that their soldiers were cured by drinking Artemisia infusions, not by artemisinin based pills. The Chinese supplied tons of the dried herb. The ACT pills only came on the market 20 years later.

He describes in length the work of a research team in Uganda sponsored by Goldmann Sachs, but does’nt say a word about the prophylactic drug Artavol developed by Dr Patrick Ogwang from de Mbarara university, drug authorized by the Ministry of Health of Uganda

Submitted by Pierre Lutgen on

Le Dr Jérôme Munyangi est arrivé à Paris le 18 juin avec un visa qui lui permet de demander l'asile politique en France.  De nombreuses personnes nous ont aidés à le faire sortir de République Démocratique du Congo (RDC), où il a été emprisonné dans des conditions indignes par une procédure inique initiée par l’entreprise Shalina, leader de la vente de médicaments chinois et indiens en Afrique Centrale. L'OFPRA (Office Français de Protection des Réfugiés et Apatrides)  doit l'accompagner dans ses démarches.


            Source : Artemisia News septembre 2019 Maisons de l'Artemisia

Submitted by Pierre Lutgen on

For example this one from Benin with 100% efficacy

“A study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of locally grown A. annua in patients with

uncomplicated falciparum malaria was conducted in Benin (66). Artemisinin content

in the plant was 0.30% of dry weight mass. Tea was made using 12 g/L of dried leaves,

infused for 15 minutes, and then administered in four doses of 250 ml over a 24-hour

period (or 125 ml in children of 10–13 years of age) for seven consecutive days – the

equivalent of receiving 36 mg (or 18 mg for children) of artemisinin in four divided

doses. The study consisted of a single open-label cohort of 108 (out of 130 patients

enrolled) who completed both the treatment and the follow-up visit up to day 28.

Authors reported an adequate clinical and parasitological response of 100% at day 28".

They also could have quoted those of Simone Chougouo in Cameroon and Lucy Kangethe in Kenya... and so many others

Submitted by Pierre Lutgen on

Artemisia leaves, if stored in a dry room, are stable for years.

Stability of lyophilized extracts however is low (Mutaz Akkawi, personal communication 2013 data availble on request). Over a few weeks the lyophilized extracts completely lose their beta-hematin inhibition power.

Artemisia annua has a stronger Plasmodium control than the tea reconstituted from lyophilized material (Pedro Melillo de Magalhaes, personal communication).

This was confirmed by a thesis in South Africa. A. afra dried leaves was stable under room temperature and humidity conditions for 6 months, while a freeze-dried aqueous extract was not.

A Dube, The design, preparation and evaluation of Artemisia afra. Thesis, University of Western Cape, June 2006.

Submitted by Pierre Lutgen on


Le docteur Jérôme Munyangi est diplômé en Médecine à l’Université de Kinshasa, il a obtenu un Master à l’Université Paris Diderot et un autre à l’Université d’Otawa. En 2011, il a été recruté par l’Organisation mondiale de la santé (OMS) comme chercheur sur les maladies tropicales négligées. Il travaille depuis maintenant 6 ans sur un traitement alternatif contre le paludisme à base d’une plante en République démocratique du Congo (RDC), 3ème pays d’Afrique le plus touché par cette maladie, après le Nigeria et le Mozambique. Ses recherches démontrent l’efficacité du traitement à base d’Artemisia, plante avec laquelle les chinois se soignent depuis plus de 2000 ans, l’OMS et d’autres organisations internationales s’opposent à son utilisation, la France et la Belgique l’interdisent et le sujet crée la polémique alors que le fléau continue de s’abattre sur les populations concernées. Selon le dernier rapport de l’OMS, le World Malaria Report 2018, toutes les 2 minutes, un enfant de moins de 5 ans meurt de cette maladie guérissable.

Docteur Jérôme Munyangi, récemment vous avez fui votre pays, la République démocratique du Congo, pour des raisons de sécurité. Cela fait maintenant plusieurs mois que vous êtes à Paris. Qu’est-ce qui vous a motivé à vous exiler en France ?

En 2015, j’ai commencé à subir des menaces de revendeurs de médicaments qui travaillent en relations avec des firmes pharmaceutiques indiennes et chinoises et qui s’installent un peu partout en Afrique. Ces firmes sont reconnues pour être impliquées dans le trafic de médicaments falsifiés. J’ai résisté à plusieurs attaques depuis 2015, puis j’ai été empoisonné comme cela a été clairement dit dans le documentaire Malaria Business[1], et dans la presse en 2017.

Pouvez-vous nous rappeler les faits ?

Nous avons commencé une étude clinique sur la malaria dans la province du Maniema à Kindu en novembre 2015, avec toutes les autorisations requises à Kinshasa, du ministère de la Santé, du ministère de la Recherche scientifique, etc. Le médecin chef de zone a fait une première tentative pour arrêter les travaux. Finalement, nous sommes allés voir le ministre à Kinshasa qui est intervenu pour que l’étude reprenne son cours. Une semaine plus tard, je ne me sentais pas bien du tout, je commençais à vomir et j’étais sans l’énergie nécessaire pour continuer à travailler. Un phytothérapeute a décelé un empoisonnement. Toutes les personnes qui vivent dans la partie Est de l’Afrique connaissent ce poison et celui-ci n’a pas d’antidotes. Je suis allé dans une autre province, à Goma, à la frontière avec le Rwanda, pour me soigner pendant environ 2 semaines. Après cela, je suis allé au Canada début 2016 pour faire des examens et on a pu observer que j’avais des ulcères dans l’estomac interne qui était perforé.

Récemment vous avez à nouveau reçu des menaces qui vous ont incitées à quitter la RDC ?

Je suis rentré en France, non pas par simple envie, mais suite à une arrestation en mars 2019 à Kinshasa où j’ai été arbitrairement et illégalement arrêté la nuit, vers 22h, puis retenu pendant 3 jours par la police, sans aucune plainte ni mandat. Un magistrat m’a auditionné et, en fin de compte, on a compris que le dossier était vide, sans aucune preuve.

Sollicitez-vous l’asile politique et où en sont vos démarches ?

Je travaille avec une ONG française, La maison de l’Artemisia, qui fait la promotion de cette plante pour promouvoir un traitement efficace et accessible à cette population pauvre et démunie d’Afrique. On m’a fait quitter le Congo et je suis resté à l’ambassade de France à Bangui [capitale de la République centrafricaine] pendant un certain temps, puis j’ai obtenu un visa pour venir en France. J’effectue maintenant les démarches pour ma demande d’asile politique afin de bénéficier d’une protection que je n’ai pas dans mon pays d’origine ou en Afrique en général.

Vos travaux sur cette plante ont commencé en 2014. Quel a été l’élément déclencheur ?

C’était en 2012. J’étais encore étudiant à la faculté de médecine au Congo et j’avais l’habitude d’organiser des journées de réflexion scientifique à Kinshasa où je réunissais des étudiants, professeurs et chercheurs pour débattre sur les questions de maladie et d’actualité scientifique.

Un jour, je suis tombé malade de la malaria et, à l’hôpital on m’a proposé un traitement à la quinine. Mais je ne supportais pas cette molécule dont je connais les effets secondaires. J’ai demandé à un ami médecin s’il existait une alternative.

Il m’a répondu : « J’ai des gélules qui viennent du Luxembourg, c’est de l’Artemisia. »

Devant l’insistance du médecin, j’ai accepté les gélules et 3 jours après je me sentais très bien. Il m’a dit de poursuivre le traitement jusqu’au 7ème jour. Le 8ème jour, au laboratoire à Kinshasa où j’avais accès, j’ai analysé et constaté que mon sang était semblable à celui de quelqu’un qui n’avait jamais vécu dans une zone endémique.

En 2014, je suis venu en France pour faire mon master en biologie synthétique sous la tutelle des universités Paris VII et Paris V. Cet ami médecin qui m’avait soigné au Congo en 2012, a écrit à son professeur au Luxembourg pour le prévenir de mon arrivée en France. Celui-ci a alors écrit à la docteure Lucile Cornet-Vernet, fondatrice de l’association Maison d’Artemisia, pour lui dire qu’un médecin congolais ayant déjà expérimenté l’Artemisia était en France et qu’on pourrait lui proposer un thème de recherche en rapport avec cette plante. Mais pour le réseau de défense de l’Artemisia, on considérait que je pouvais être une « taupe » puisque j’avais déjà travaillé avec l’OMS, organisation qui ne recommande plus l’utilisation de la tisane d’Artemisia, suite à quoi la France et la Belgique l’ont interdit. De plus, j’avais, et garde toujours, de bonnes relations avec tous ceux qui m’ont encadré à l’OMS et qui occupent des postes de décision en Afrique. J’étais donc peu recommandable, voir indésirable. Mais la docteure Lucile Cornet-Vernet a une autre vision des choses, elle m’a invité à son cabinet à Paris et nous avons enfin commencé à travailler sur l’Artemisia.

Comment a été perçue votre étude à Paris ?

Nous avons travaillé sur un modèle animal, la paramécie, qui pousse un peu partout dans les eaux usées. Celle-ci a les spécificités moléculaires du plasmodium, l’agent causal de la malaria. La paramécie est utilisée pour évaluer le dosage des médicaments. Nous sommes arrivés à des résultats concluants à partir desquelles nous avons fait des essais biologiques et cliniques.

Pourquoi la plante est-elle interdite en France et en Belgique ? Comment expliquer cette interdiction ?

L’OMS est un organe qui régule les questions de santé en se basant sur les études d’experts, d’instituts de recherche et de scientifiques. L’OMS peut être induite en erreur par des scientifiques selon leurs positionnements ou leurs intérêts. On sait qu’aujourd’hui toutes les recherches scientifiques y compris celles des écoles de médecine, sont financées en grande partie par les firmes pharmaceutiques attentives à leurs intérêts. L’OMS, dans son communiqué de juin 2012[2], ne recommande pas l’utilisation de l’Artemisia annua, sous quelque forme que ce soit, y compris le thé, pour le traitement ou la prévention du paludisme. L’OMS a pris cette décision un peu hâtivement et a insisté sur la résistance au traitement, sans se référer aux documentations scientifiques qui existent depuis longtemps. En conséquence, la France et la Belgique ont appliqué à la lettre cette recommandation de l’OMS en allant jusqu’à l’interdiction formelle.

Pourtant, la plante se trouve facilement. Ici à Paris, on la retrouve le long de l’autoroute qui mène vers Lille. En Afrique nous avons une variété, l’Artemisia afra, qui pousse partout, c’est une plante endémique, autochtone, connue des populations indigènes.

Vous parlez de menaces à votre encontre. D’après vous les laboratoires pharmaceutiques sont-ils à la manœuvre pour vous empêcher de nuire à leurs intérêts ?

La malaria fait partie du business. Les multinationales occidentales perdent beaucoup d’argent sur le traitement de la malaria en Afrique. Ces firmes pharmaceutiques ont du mal à écouler leurs produits en Afrique parce que le continent est devenu le monopole des Chinois et des Indiens. La France, la Belgique, Interpol en général, travaillent en collaboration avec les fédérations internationales de douanes contre le trafic de médicaments falsifiés. La production légale de médicaments en Europe représente près de 1.000 milliards d’euros, la production de faux médicament représente 70 ou 200 milliards.

Connue en Chine depuis plus de 2.000 ans, l’Artemisia annua est entrée dans l’histoire le siècle dernier lorsque, pendant la guerre du Vietnam (1959-1975), la plante était préconisée aux soldats nord-vietnamiens décimés par le paludisme pour se soigner avec un certain succès. De leur côté, les États-Unis, également affecté par la maladie, avaient recours à un traitement à la méfloquine, connu sous le nom commercial de Lariam®, efficace mais non dépourvu d’effets secondaires neuropsychologiques inquiétants : cauchemars, perte de mémoire, paranoïa, dépression et pensées suicidaires… Ce traitement à base de mefloquine a pourtant été largement utilisé par les troupes états-uniennes lors de déploiements en Afrique, en Irak et en Afghanistan. Comment expliquez-vous que la méfloquine (Lariam® 250), produite par la société suisse Hoffmann-La Roche, soit toujours recommandée par l’institut Pasteur malgré  ses effets secondaires, alors que l’Artemisia ne l’est plus par des organisations internationales comme l’OMS ?

Cette question m’interpelle chaque jour. Pourquoi cette politique de deux poids, deux mesures de notre organe régulateur de la santé mondiale, l’OMS, de tous les instituts de recherche aujourd’hui dans le monde et des gouvernements et décideurs politiques africains ?

Le Lariam®, dont les effets secondaires dévastateurs sont incomparables avec la plante est un exemple emblématique. Si on compare le risque-bénéfice du Lariam® avec la tisane d’Artemisia, je suis certain qu’une majorité de personnes opteraient pour la tisane parce qu’il y a beaucoup de risques à prendre le Lariam®. Il est inimaginable qu’on préconise le Lariam® et qu’on interdise l’Artemisia.

En 2001, l’OMS déclarait que l’artémisinine représentait « le plus grand espoir mondial contre le paludisme ». Finalement, en juin 2012, dans le communiqué que vous citez, l’OMS déconseille son utilisation. Pourtant, en 2015, Tu Youyou est devenue le premier prix Nobel de médecine chinois pour avoir démontré son efficacité dans les traitements antipaludéens. Pourquoi l’OMS s’oppose-t-elle à l’utilisation de l’Artemisia sous sa forme naturelle ? Est-ce par manque d’évidences scientifiques – difficiles à obtenir sachant que l’OMS ne finance pas la recherche sur la plante – ou par le risque très hypothétique de développement de résistance ?

Il n’y a pas de résistance à la tisane à base d’Artemisia annua qui ait été prouvée. Il n’est pas possible de développer de la résistance à une polythérapie, on développe des résistances contre une molécule. Les vaccins contre la malaria sont efficaces à seulement moins de 0%. Des scientifiques travaillent  actuellement car des résistances au traitement se développent en Chine et commencent en Afrique.

Pourquoi les instituts de recherche, l’OMS et autres bailleurs de fonds, ne veulent pas mettre de l’argent pour en finir une fois pour toute avec la polémique sur cette plante ? Ne devrait-on pas l’étudier ?

Si la Maison de l’Artemisia et moi-même, nous sommes décidés à mener ces études, ce n’est pas pour créer un médicament ou breveter une invention. Ce qui nous intéresse, c’est que les scientifiques, les bailleurs de fond, les décideurs politiques africains braquent leurs projecteurs sur la tisane qui est la solution pour les Africains. Dans un pays continent comme le Congo, pourquoi la tisane ne pourrait pas être une première solution pour les populations éloignées des villes avec des routes impraticables, avant que les personnes affectées ne soient prises en charge dans un centre de santé ? La tisane pourrait être un soulagement pour ces personnes avant leur entrée à l’hôpital. L’Afrique est le continent le plus dépendant en médicaments, près de 95% des médicaments consommés sont importés. En Afrique centrale, 99% des médicaments antipaludéens consommés viennent de l’Inde et de la Chine. L’Afrique pourrait énormément gagner à cultiver son héritage culturel, médicinal et traditionnel si elle développait, finançait et appuyait ses propres recherches, comme nous l’avons proposé pour développer nous-même ce traitement d’Artemisia. Pourquoi les gouvernements, pourquoi les bailleurs de fond ne veulent pas s’intéresser à cette question. C’est juste une question d’intérêt financier parce que des milliards de dollars sont en jeux.

Pour la première fois sur le continent africain, environ 6.400 moustiques génétiquement modifiés ont été lâchés dans une localité du sud-ouest du Burkina Faso, pays où la maladie reste la première cause de mortalité et où plus de 27.000 personnes en sont décédés en 2017. Cette expérience constitue la phase de test du programme Target Malaria, financé par la fondation Bill et Melinda Gates à hauteur de 60 millions d’euros. Quelle est votre réaction ?

C’est un carnage. J’aimerai qu’il y ait un Thomas Sankara dans ce pays qui exige les preuves d’efficacité en amont, avant de lâcher des moustiques génétiquement modifiés dans l’environnement. Nous ne connaissons pas les conséquences de ces moustiques sur l’environnement ni sur la santé humaine. Comment peut-on autoriser ce genre d’étude et interdire la consommation d’une plante qui pourrait soigner, prévenir et lutter efficacement contre la malaria ? La fondation Bill et Mélinda Gates est impliquée dans la distribution de moustiquaires imprégnées d’insecticide, or on sait qu’actuellement dans un pays comme le Congo, les moustiquaires n’ont même pas été imprégnées d’insecticide comme cela a été reconnu par le ministre congolais démissionnaire de la Santé dans sa lettre de réponse au Collectif des organisations de la société civile pour la santé et la lutte contre le paludisme. Cette fondation et d’autres bailleurs de fonds ne respectent pas leurs engagements. Ces expériences n’ont aucun sens, c’est une insulte pour les chercheurs, les peuples et les gouvernements africains.


[1] Malaria Business, film documentaire de Bernard Crutzen, coproduction Caméra One Télévision – RTBF, 2017, Belgique, Congo, Sénégal, Madagascar. Une version est disponible en ligne .
[2] « Effectiveness of Non-Pharmaceutical Forms of Artemisia annua L. against malaria »,  WHO Position Statement, OMS et Global Malaria Programme, Juin 2012.

Auteur : Jerôme Duval


Submitted by Pierre Lutgen on

I was surprised by the paper posted in

    MD Walker, The last British malaria outbreak. J General Practice, 2020, 70, 182-183

finding that the last outbreak involving locally acquired cases occurred between 1917 and 1921.  And the author asks if this vector-borne disease could pose a threat today.

I investigated the matter further and found that malaria after the first World War was not only common in Sicily, Southern France, Greece but was spread all over Europe. In Russia 18 million people suffered from malaria in 1925 and 60 000 deaths occurred.

      G Gachelin, A Opinel. Malaria epidemics in Europe after the First World War. Hist.cienc.Saude 2011, 18-2

If we put all our resources into the fight against the Covid 19 virus in Europe and Africa Africa, we may open the door not only for an increase but an explosion of malaria in Africa, with a spillover to Europe.

Submitted by Pierre Lutgen on


Everybody wants to find Artemisia for infusions against Covid and Malaria.

Several of our partners in Africa are confronted with a stockout

Congratulations for Jerome Munyangi who with other Africans run the successful large scale double blind clinical trials in RDC against malaria and bilharzia, confirming previous smaller clinical trials run in several countries by African medical teams.

Submitted by Pierre Lutgen on

Several recent papers or blogs confirm that malaria endemic regions are virtually Covid free. They relate this to malaria drugs. We rather are of the opinion that it is due to acquired immunity, immunoglobulins and their enhancement by Artemisia infusions (not artemisinin).

See paper from Feb 20 2020 in PPIJ : "An unexpected, revolutionary property of Artemisia infusions: immunoglobulins lead to a long lasting prophylaxis " by J MUNYANGI, P Gisenya, P Ogwang and P Lutgen.

Submitted by Pierre Lutgen on

Mosquito-borne diseases are associated with major global health burdens. In a recent paper,

J Munyangi, P Ogwang, P Gisenya, P Lutgen. An unexpected, revolutionary property of Artemisia infusions. Pharm Pharmacol Int J. 2020;8(1):46‒62.

the authors describe how the saliva of mosquitoes during parasite or virus infection may affect transmission. For their blood meal mosquitoes inject saliva. Reactions to mosquito bites, lead to immunological reactions, to swelling, wheal and flare of the skin. Mosquito saliva contains many biological materials, anticlotting and antiplatelet factors and vasodilators which presumably increase the speed at which blood from the host is imbibed. But also, immunomodulators, allergens which bind to IgE and induce histamine and iNOS release. Allergens are present in the saliva of most of the mosquitoes, even in those which are not infected. A study has shown in a murine model that bites from uninfected mosquitoes prior to Plasmodium yoelii infection influence the local and systemic immune responses and limit parasite development within the host.  And it may explain why people living in countries with dense Anopheles populations are immunized by these bites. A similar phenomenon has been noticed for other diseases: repeated infestation with Ixodes scapularis ticks induces resistance to Borrelia burgdorferi transmission. And multiple exposure to bites from uninfected sand flies prior to infection confer resistance to Leishmania major.

Aedes spp. and Culex spp. are primarily responsible for the transmission of the most medically important viruses, including dengue virus, West Nile virus and Zika virus. Despite the burden of these pathogens on human populations, the interactions between viruses and their hosts remain enigmatic, especially during the transmission phase from mosquito to human host. Some authors find that the saliva of the bite increases virus replication, others that it is inhibited.

        Tonnerre P, Melgaço JG. Evolution of the innate and adaptive immune response in women with acute Zika virus infection. Nat Microbiol. 2020 Jan;5(1):76-83

        Garcia M, Alout H. Innate Immune Response of Primary Human Keratinocytes to West Nile Virus Infection and Its Modulation by Mosquito Saliva. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2018 Nov 2; 8:387

         Vogt MB, Lahon A, Arya RP. (2018) Mosquito saliva alone has profound effects on the human immune system and increases the frequency of CD4+CD8+ double positive T cells and natural killer T cells. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018,  12(5): e0006439

A few decades ago, the almost complete absence of infectious HIV in saliva was noticed. Inhibition of HIV may be partly due to several inhibitors of viruses that are present in the saliva. Inhibitory factors to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in saliva may be responsible for the infrequent isolation of virus from saliva and also may account for the marked infrequency of salivary and/or oral transmission of HIV-1. Incubation of HIV-1 with  human saliva followed by addition of the mixture to susceptible cells leads to partial or complete suppression of viral replication in vitro.

       Malamud D, Abrams WR, Barber CA. Antiviral Activities in Human Saliva. Adv Dent Res. 2011 Apr; 23(1): 34–37.


         DW Archibald, GA Cole  In vitro inhibition of HIV-1 infectivity by human salivas. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 1990:6, 1425-32

        Philip C. Fox, Saliva inhibits HIV-1 infectivity. J Am Dental Assoc, 1988 Volume 116, 6,635–637

        Fultz PN Components of saliva inactivate human immunodeficiency virus.  Lancet. 1986; 2:1215

It is possible that people living in malaria endemic areas are immunized against Covid-19,

  • either by the saliva injected in frequent mosquito bites; some of its constituents remain for days or weeks in the skin and in the body
  • or by the development of specific immunoglobulins.

Submitted by Pierre Lutgen on

The French journal "Le Généraliste" is read every week by some 40 000 medical doctors in France. It describes a tremendous hope now that in Africa malaria also resists to ACTs.

Des cas de malaria multi résistante soignés grâce à l'armoise annuelle
Lorsque les traitements standards contre la malaria se sont révélés inefficaces chez 18 patients, des médecins d’une clinique congolaise ont décidé de recourir à une thérapie non encore approuvée par les autorités médicales qui repose uniquement sur des feuilles séchées de la plante Artemisia
annua ou armoise annuelle, la même plante dont dérive l’artémisinine.
D’après l’étude publiée dans la revue Phytomedicine, les 18 patients auraient guéri en seulement 5 jours.
Cet essai clinique, quoique de faible ampleur, donne tout de même de l’espoir face à la lutte contre le paludisme, dont c’est ce mardi 25 avril la journée mondiale.
Les patients avaient entre 14 mois et 60 ans et n’avaient pas répondu au traitement combiné à base d’artémisinine (ACT) au point que leur cas était devenu critique avec des pertes de connaissance, des détresses respiratoires, des convulsions ou des œdèmes pulmonaires.
Un des malades, âgé de cinq ans est même tombé dans le coma.
Les praticiens ont donc administré par voie intraveineuse de l’artesunate, le traitement de première intention pour une malaria sévère mais là encore leur état n’a pas montré d’amélioration.
C’est en désespoir de cause, que les médecins se sont tournés vers cette thérapie qui demeurait en cours de développement à l’Institut polytechnique à Worcester (Massachusetts).
Les comprimés à base de feuilles ont donné des résultats surprenants, les patients se sont parfaitement rétablis et les tests ont montré qu'ils n’avaient plus de parasites dans le sang.
« À notre connaissance, il s’agit des premiers témoignages rapportés chez l’homme ou des feuilles séchées d’Artemisia annua parviennent à contrôler des cas de paludisme résistant à l’ACT », soulignent les auteurs des travaux, en ajoutant que d’autres essais cliniques plus complets sur les patients souffrant de malaria résistante sont justifiés.

Le Généraliste est le leader des News Magazines de la Presse Médicale.
Il est adressé, tous les vendredis, à près de 30 000 Médecins Généralistes.

Submitted by Francois Nosten on

 L’étude publiée dans la revue Phytomedicine a ete retractee.

Submitted by Pierre Lutgen on

Pascale Gisenya, Pierre Lutgen

In 2014, the blog « Artequick programmed for failure » on had started a heated debate.

Indeed several mass drug administration trials have  failed, the largest one performed in the Comoros by a Chinese company. This does not prevent other people to use Africans as guinea pigs for further mass drug administration trials with the same ACTs.

Okebe, J., Dabira, E., Jaiteh, F. et al. Reactive, self-administered malaria treatment against asymptomatic malaria infection: results of a cluster randomized controlled trial in The Gambia. Malar J 20, 253 (2021).

Quote. "Systematically treating all residents of compounds where clinical malaria cases occur would clear these infections and reduce transmission. This was tested in a cluster randomized trial carried out in 50 villages in Central Gambia. In the intervention arm, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine was administered to all residents of compounds with a clinical malaria case. At the end of the intervention, malaria prevalence was not significantly lower in the intervention than in the control arm".

Meanwhile several clinical trials in African countries with Artemisia afra, a local plant which is completely legal,  have demonstrated strong prophylactic properties. Eradication also becomes a possibility because Artemisia kills all residual gametocytes liable to transmit the disease.

None of the current antimalarial drugs has prophylactic properties. None completely eliminates gametocytes, except primaquine which has no therapeutic effect on Plasmodium falciparum at the asexual stage, but acts at the sexual stage (with strong side-effects for G6PD patients)

Submitted by Pierre Lutgen on

(Excerpts of the preprint)

Artemisinin-independent inhibitory activity of Artemisia sp. infusions against different Plasmodium stages including relapse-causing hypnozoites

Kutub Ashraf,  Dominique Mazier et al.

doi: bioRxiv

…..Recently the use of traditional infusions from Artemisia annua (from which artemisinin is obtained) or A. afra (lacking artemisinin) has been controversially advocated….. Here, we conducted the first comparative study of the anti-malarial effects of both plant infusions in vitro against the asexual erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum and the pre-erythrocytic (i. e., liver) stages of various Plasmodium species. Low concentrations of either infusion accounted for significant inhibitory activities across every parasite species and stage studied. We show that these antiplasmodial effects were essentially artemisinin-independent and were additionally monitored by observations of the parasite apicoplast and mitochondrion. In particular, the infusions significantly incapacitated sporozoites, and for P. vivax and P. cynomolgi, disrupted the hypnozoites.

These results  confirm to a large extent the clinical trials and fieldwork done by African medical doctors

       Constant Kansango Tchandema MD, Pierre Lutgen PhD, In vivo trials on the therapeutic effects of encapsulated Artemisia annua and Artemisia afra, GJRA, 2016, 5,6, pp 228-234 ISSN 2277-8160

       Jerome Munyangi and Michel Idumbo, Breaking news from clinical trials with Artemisia plants., Jan, 2016 -