Reply to: Safety and Efficacy of Tafenoquine for Plasmodium vivax Malaria Prophylaxis and Radical Cure: Overview and Perspectives
In respect of usually non-attributed or mis-attributed hypnozoite-related matters citation-wise, what is contained in the Perspectives part of the above paper must be, together with the explanation re newer P. vivax biological understanding, the only accurate overall account in existence.
Reply to: Partial indoor residual spraying with pirimiphos-methyl as an effective and cost-saving measure for the control of Anopheles gambiae s.l. in northern Ghana
This is a good and interesting study but two questions arise from this. 1. If the IRS has some repellency then partial spraying will enable them to avoid the treated surface. 2. We only partial exposure will it select for resistance with mosquitoes getting a lower dose rate than in a fully sprayed house?. If either of the above two are valid then it could be short term gain for long yterm loss.
Reply to: Breaking news from clinical trials with Artemisia plants
(Excerpts of the preprint)
Artemisinin-independent inhibitory activity of Artemisia sp. infusions against different Plasmodium stages including relapse-causing hypnozoites
Kutub Ashraf, Dominique Mazier et al.
doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.08.10.455849 bioRxiv
…..Recently the use of traditional infusions from Artemisia annua (from which artemisinin is obtained) or A. afra (lacking artemisinin) has been controversially advocated….. Here, we conducted the first comparative study of the anti-malarial effects of both plant infusions in vitro against the asexual erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum and the pre-erythrocytic (i. e., liver) stages of various Plasmodium species. Low concentrations of either infusion accounted for significant inhibitory activities across every parasite species and stage studied. We show that these antiplasmodial effects were essentially artemisinin-independent and were additionally monitored by observations of the parasite apicoplast and mitochondrion. In particular, the infusions significantly incapacitated sporozoites, and for P. vivax and P. cynomolgi, disrupted the hypnozoites.
These results confirm to a large extent the clinical trials and fieldwork done by African medical doctors
Constant Kansango Tchandema MD, Pierre Lutgen PhD, In vivo trials on the therapeutic effects of encapsulated Artemisia annua and Artemisia afra, GJRA, 2016, 5,6, pp 228-234 ISSN 2277-8160
Jerome Munyangi and Michel Idumbo, Breaking news from clinical trials with Artemisia plants. www.malariaworld.org, Jan, 2016 -
Reply to: Toward New Transmission-Blocking Combination Therapies: Pharmacokinetics of 10-Amino-Artemisinins and 11-Aza-Artemisinin and Comparison with Dihydroartemisinin and Artemether
This is another paper written by African authors which recognizes that « artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) are compromised by resistance ». On the other side, several other African authors have demonstrated that Artemisia afra is not only therapeutic, but also prophylactic, and that it eliminates transmission by killing all gametocytes. For Africa it is of high importance that Artemisia afra is a plant growing wild in many African countries. Its use is perfectly legal as per WHO prescriptions (Traditional Medicine Strategy 2014-2023 and WHO/EDM/TRM/2000.1). The use of a plant where documentary evidence exists that it has been used over three or more generations for health related or medicinal purpose is perfectly legal and there is no requirement for preclinical toxicity testing. The document WHO-CDS-GMP-2019.14 recognizes that the species Artemisia afra grows through the southern and eastern parts of Africa and has been used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of ailments from asthma and rheumatism to malaria.
Reply to: Time for malaria control in school-age children
absolutely agree, school children have the lowest coverage of bed nets, recognizing that they will not die from malaria as their younger siblings risk. But they hold a large part of the totale parasite population and letting them little treated and not protected means that malaria will stay for ever; malaria reduction from the current level can only be done by including this group