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Research: Malaria transmission intensity and dynamics of clinical malaria incidence in a mountainous forest region of Ghana

October 14, 2013 - 20:07 -- Bart G.J. Knols
Kingsley Badu, Ruth C. Brenya, Christian Timmann, Rolf Garms, Thomas F. Kruppa
MWJ 2013, 4, 14
Article type: 

Malaria transmission was assessed in four villages with different micro-ecological features in the forest zone of the Akwapim-Mampong Range in Ghana. Human landing catches(HLC) of mosquitoes were conducted and Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite rates were assessed by ELISA. Sporozoite prevalence, annual biting rates (ABR) and entomological inoculation rates (EIR) from the four study sites were compared with climatological and ecological data. Additionally trends in confirmed clinical malaria incidence from 2005 -2012 were examined. In total 1307 Anopheles gambiae s.l. and 54 An. funestus females were caught by HLC from November 2003 to August 2005. Sporozoites rates ranged from 4.0 to 10.2%, ABR from 371 to 1890 and EIR from 40 to 158. The ABR significantly influenced the parasite density (PD) of P. falciparum. Malaria transmission was intense and heterogeneous and corresponded to the micro-ecological differences. Malaria transmission in the early evening hours before people went to sleep was enough to sustain stable malaria. Scaling up preventive measures to reduce exposure to vectors will be effective in reducing parasitemia in children. Variations in transmission intensity must be considered when evaluating impact of control strategies and interventions such as the vaccine trials.


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