Ghana’s National Malaria Control Program distributes free insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) as a malaria control measure. Some households with the ITN do not use it, however. This paper explores the socioeconomic and demographic determinants of ITN ownership and use among Ghanaian families.
Malaria vaccine development has been characterised by excitement and disappointment in equal measure. Candidates that have shown promise in pre-clinical animal models and phase 1/2 clinical trials in volunteers who are malaria naive typically do not make the grade when tested in malaria-endemic populations.
Malaria is one of the leading causes of death among adolescent girls in southeast Asia. Young adolescent girls (aged 10–14 years), for whom malaria is the eighth highest cause of mortality, are most affected.
It remains challenging to understand why some hosts suffer severe illnesses, while others are unscathed by the same infection. We fitted a mathematical model to longitudinal measurements of parasite and red blood cell density in murine hosts from diverse genetic backgrounds to identify aspects of within-host interactions that explain variation in host resilience and survival during acute malaria infection.
Malaria interventions including use of Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine as Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPTp-SP) and distribution of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) have been implemented through ante-natal clinic (ANC) services in Ghana. Yet, the high ANC attendance is not commensurate with the uptake of these interventions, with missed opportunities to deliver the interventions. This study sought to assess the health system factors affecting access and delivery of IPTp-SP and ITN as defined by the Ghana Malaria Policy Guideline to eligible pregnant women attending ANC clinic sessions.
The RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine confers only moderate protection against malaria. Evidence suggests that the effectiveness of the RTS,S/AS01 vaccine depends upon the parasite population genetics, specifically regarding the circumsporozoite protein haplotypes in the population. We investigated Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) gene sequences from two endemic sites in 2018 in Senegal.
We report the case of a 29-year-old male in whom COVID-19 concerns led to a delayed diagnosis of falciparum malaria.
Infections disrupt host metabolism, but the factors that dictate the nature and magnitude of metabolic change are incompletely characterized. To determine how host metabolism changes in relation to disease severity in murine malaria, we performed plasma metabolomics on eight Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mouse strains with diverse disease phenotypes. We identified plasma metabolic biomarkers for both the nature and severity of different malarial pathologies. A subset of metabolic changes, including plasma arginine depletion, match the plasma metabolomes of human malaria patients, suggesting new connections between pathology and metabolism in human malaria.
Iron deficiency (ID) has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, maternal anaemia, and altered susceptibility to infection. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), monthly treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine plus azithromycin (SPAZ) prevented low birthweight (LBW; <2500 g) through a combination of anti-malarial and non-malarial effects when compared to a single treatment with SP plus chloroquine (SPCQ) at first antenatal visit. We assessed the relationship between ID and adverse birth outcomes in women receiving SPAZ or SPCQ, and the mediating effects of malaria infection and haemoglobin levels during pregnancy.
Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family members mediate receptor- and tissue-specific sequestration of infected erythrocytes (IEs) in malaria. Antibody responses are a central component of naturally acquired malaria immunity. PfEMP1-specific IgG likely protects by inhibiting IE sequestration and through IgG-Fc Receptor (FcγR) mediated phagocytosis and killing of antibody-opsonized IEs. The affinity of afucosylated IgG to FcγRIIIa is up to 40-fold higher than fucosylated IgG, resulting in enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.