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Scientific Articles

Cardiopulmonary alterations by ultrasound in a patient with uncomplicated mixed malaria infection: a case report from the Amazon Basin

July 28, 2021 - 15:30 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Alma Wegener, Karine O. Lima, Philip Brainin, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:330, 28 July 2021

Information on cardiopulmonary complications in clinical malaria is sparse and diagnosis may be difficult in resource-limited areas due to lack of proper diagnostic tools and access to medical care. A case of pericardial effusion and pulmonary alterations assessed by ultrasound in a patient with uncomplicated mixed malaria infection is described.

Decreased prevalence of the Plasmodium falciparum Pfcrt K76T and Pfmdr1 and N86Y mutations post-chloroquine treatment withdrawal in Katete District, Eastern Zambia

July 28, 2021 - 15:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mwenda C. Mulenga, Lungowe Sitali, Ilinca I. Ciubotariu, Moonga B. Hawela, Busiku Hamainza, James Chipeta and Sungano Mharakurwa
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:329, 28 July 2021

In 2002, Zambia withdrew chloroquine as first-line treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria due to increased treatment failure and worldwide spread of chloroquine resistance. The artemisinin combination regimen, artemether–lumefantrine, replaced chloroquine (CQ) as first choice malaria treatment. The present study determined the prevalence of CQ resistance molecular markers in the Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 genes in Eastern Zambia at 9 and 13 years after the removal of drug pressure.

Characterization of resistance profile (intensity and mechanisms) of Anopheles gambiae in three communes of northern Benin, West Africa

July 28, 2021 - 15:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Casimir Dossou Kpanou, Hermann W. Sagbohan, Martin Akogbéto, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:328, 27 July 2021

The selection and the spread of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors to the main classes of insecticides used in vector control tools are a major and ongoing challenge to malaria vector control programmes. This study aimed to determine the intensity of vector resistance to insecticides in three regions of Benin with different agro-ecological characteristics.

Liposomes for malaria management: the evolution from 1980 to 2020

July 28, 2021 - 15:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Patrick B. Memvanga and Christian I. Nkanga
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:327, 27 July 2021

Malaria is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases and the foremost cause of morbidity in the tropical regions of the world. Strategies for the efficient management of this parasitic infection include adequate treatment with anti-malarial therapeutics and vaccination. However, the emergence and spread of resistant strains of malaria parasites to the majority of presently used anti-malarial medications, on the other hand, complicates malaria treatment.

Effect of seasonal malaria chemoprevention plus azithromycin on Plasmodium falciparum transmission: gametocyte infectivity and mosquito fitness

July 28, 2021 - 15:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Koudraogo Bienvenue Yaméogo, Rakiswendé Serge Yerbanga, Jean Bosco Ouédraogo, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:326, 27 July 2021

Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) consists of administration of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) + amodiaquine (AQ) at monthly intervals to children during the malaria transmission period. Whether the addition of azithromycin (AZ) to SMC could potentiate the benefit of the intervention was tested through a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The effect of SMC and the addition of AZ, on malaria transmission and on the life history traits of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes have been investigated.

Factors associated with malaria vaccine uptake in Sunyani Municipality, Ghana

July 28, 2021 - 15:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Dennis Tabiri, Jean Claude Romaric Pingdwindé Ouédraogo and Priscilla Awo Nortey
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:325, 27 July 2021

Malaria continues to be a major disease of public health concern affecting several million people worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) started a pilot study on a malaria vaccine (RTS,S) in Ghana and two other countries in 2019. This study aimed at assessing the factors associated with uptake of the vaccine in the Sunyani Municipality of Ghana.

Evaluation of different deployment strategies for larviciding to control malaria: a simulation study

July 28, 2021 - 15:03 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Manuela Runge, Salum Mapua, Ismail Nambunga, Thomas A. Smith, Nakul Chitnis, Fredros Okumu and Emilie Pothin
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:324, 27 July 2021

Larviciding against malaria vectors in Africa has been limited to indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated nets, but is increasingly being considered by some countries as a complementary strategy. However, despite progress towards improved larvicides and new tools for mapping or treating mosquito-breeding sites, little is known about the optimal deployment strategies for larviciding in different transmission and seasonality settings.

Understanding the benefits and burdens associated with a malaria human infection study in Kenya: experiences of study volunteers and other stakeholders

July 28, 2021 - 15:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chi PC, Owino EA, Jao I, Olewe F, Ogutu B, Bejon P, Kapulu M, Kamuya D, Marsh V
Reference: 
Trials. 2021 Jul 26;22(1):494

Human infection studies (HIS) that involve deliberately infecting healthy volunteers with a pathogen raise important ethical issues, including the need to ensure that benefits and burdens are understood and appropriately accounted for. Building on earlier work, we embedded social science research within an ongoing malaria human infection study in coastal Kenya to understand the study benefits and burdens experienced by study stakeholders in this low-resource setting and assess the wider implications for future research planning and policy.

NOT Open Access | Pharmacotherapy for artemisinin-resistant malaria

July 28, 2021 - 14:58 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Koehne E, Adegnika AA, Held J, Kreidenweiss A
Reference: 
Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2021 Jul 27

Malaria, the most devastating parasitic disease, is currently treated with artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). Unfortunately, some ACTs are unable to rapidly clear Plasmodium falciparum parasites from the blood stream and are failing to cure malaria patients; a problem, so far, largely confined to Southeast Asia. There is a fear of resistant Plasmodium falciparum emerging in other parts of the world including Sub-Sahara Africa. Strategies for alternative treatments, ideally non-artemisinin based, are needed.

The newly discovered role of endocytosis in artemisinin resistance

July 28, 2021 - 14:37 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Behrens HM, Schmidt S, Spielmann T
Reference: 
Med Res Rev. 2021 Jul 26

Artemisinin and its derivatives (ART) are the cornerstone of malaria treatment as part of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). However, reduced susceptibility to artemisinin as well as its partner drugs threatens the usefulness of ACTs. Single point mutations in the parasite protein Kelch13 (K13) are necessary and sufficient for the reduced sensitivity of malaria parasites to ART but several alternative mechanisms for this resistance have been proposed.

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