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Scientific Articles

Larval habitats, species composition and distribution of malaria vectors in regions with autochthonous and imported malaria in Roraima state, Brazil

January 22, 2022 - 21:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nathália Coelho Vargas de Almeida, Jaime Louzada, Maycon Sebastião Alberto Santos Neves, Thiago M. Carvalho, Júlio Castro-Alves, Teresa Fernandes Silva-do-Nascimento, Ananias A. Escalante and Joseli Oliveira-Ferreira
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2022 21:13, 14 January 2022

Malaria control requires local action. Assessing the vector diversity and abundance provides information on the local malariogenic potential or risk of transmission. This study aimed to determine the Anopheles species composition, habitats, seasonal occurrence, and distribution in areas with autochthonous and imported malaria cases in Roraima State.

Price, quality, and market dynamics of malaria rapid diagnostic tests: analysis of Global Fund 2009–2018 data

January 22, 2022 - 21:03 -- Open Access
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Rachel Wittenauer, Spike Nowak and Nick Luter
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2022 21:12, 12 January 2022

Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria are a vital part of global malaria control. Over the past decade, RDT prices have declined, and quality has improved. However, the relationship between price and product quality and their larger implications on the market have yet to be characterized. This analysis used purchase data from the Global Fund together with product quality data from the World Health Organization (WHO) and Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND) Malaria RDT Product Testing Programme to understand three unanswered questions: (1) Has the market share by quality of RDTs in the Global Fund’s procurement orders changed over time? (2) What is the relationship between unit price and RDT quality? (3) Has the market for RDTs financed by the Global Fund become more concentrated over time?

Comparative efficacy of two pyrethroid-piperonyl butoxide nets (Olyset Plus and PermaNet 3.0) against pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors: a non-inferiority assessment

January 22, 2022 - 21:02 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Corine Ngufor, Josias Fagbohoun, Abel Agbevo, Hanafy Ismail, Joseph D. Challenger, Thomas S. Churcher and Mark Rowland
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2022 21:20, 11 January 2022

Pyrethroid-PBO nets were conditionally recommended for control of malaria transmitted by mosquitoes with oxidase-based pyrethroid-resistance based on epidemiological evidence of additional protective effect with Olyset Plus compared to a pyrethroid-only net (Olyset Net). Entomological studies can be used to assess the comparative performance of other brands of pyrethroid-PBO ITNs to Olyset Plus.

Design and methods for a quasi-experimental pilot study to evaluate the impact of dual active ingredient insecticide-treated nets on malaria burden in five regions in sub-Saharan Africa

January 22, 2022 - 21:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Adama Gansané, Baltazar Candrinho, Molly Robertson, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2022 21:19, 10 January 2022

Vector control tools have contributed significantly to a reduction in malaria burden since 2000, primarily through insecticidal-treated bed nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying. In the face of increasing insecticide resistance in key malaria vector species, global progress in malaria control has stalled. Innovative tools, such as dual active ingredient (dual-AI) ITNs that are effective at killing insecticide-resistant mosquitoes have recently been introduced. However, large-scale uptake has been slow for several reasons, including higher costs and limited evidence on their incremental effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. The present report describes the design of several observational studies aimed to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of dual-AI ITNs, compared to standard pyrethroid-only ITNs, at reducing malaria transmission across a variety of transmission settings.

Monitoring of the Village Malaria Workers to conduct activities of Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project in Mandla, Madhya Pradesh

January 22, 2022 - 20:59 -- Open Access
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Harsh Rajvanshi, Praveen K. Bharti, Ravendra K. Sharma, Sekh Nisar, Kalyan B. Saha, Himanshu Jayswar, Ashok K. Mishra, Aparup Das, Harpreet Kaur and Altaf A. Lal
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2022 21:18, 8 January 2022

The capacity of the field staff to conduct activities related to disease surveillance, case management, and vector control has been one of the key components for successfully achieving malaria elimination. India has committed to eliminate malaria by 2030, and it has placed significance on monitoring and evaluation at the district level as one of the key strategies in its national framework. To support and guide the country’s malaria elimination objectives, the Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project was conducted in the tribal district of Mandla, Madhya Pradesh. Robust monitoring of human resources received special attention to help the national programme formulate a strategy to plug the gaps in its supply chain and monitoring and evaluation systems.

Presence and potential distribution of malaria-infected New World primates of Costa Rica

January 22, 2022 - 20:57 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Andrea Chaves, Gaby Dolz, Carlos N. Ibarra-Cerdeña, Genuar Núñez, Edgar Ortiz-Malavasi E, Sofia Bernal-Valle and Gustavo A. Gutiérrez-Espeleta
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2022 21:17, 8 January 2022

In South and Central America, Plasmodium malariae/Plasmodium brasilianum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium simium, and Plasmodium falciparum has been reported in New World primates (NWP). Specifically in Costa Rica, the presence of monkeys positive to P. malariae/P brasilianum has been identified in both captivity and in the wild. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of P. brasilianum, P. falciparum, and P. vivax, and the potential distribution of these parasites-infecting NWP from Costa Rica.

Pharmacokinetics of chloroquine and primaquine in healthy volunteers

January 22, 2022 - 20:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
André Daher, Douglas Pereira Pinto, Jorge Souza Mendonça, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2022 21:16, 8 January 2022

Vivax malaria is a neglected disease. There is an irrefutable need for better treatments with higher acceptability and efficacy. The treatment efficacy is influenced by many factors, including bioavailability. Hence, a straightforward strategy to improve vivax malaria treatment efficacy is the deployment of good quality formulations of primaquine and chloroquine. As these treatments were developed more than 70 years ago, many of the available data on blood levels of both drugs are based on obsolete analytical methodologies or pharmaceutical formulations, which are not available anymore. Herein, the results of three bioequivalence studies are presented, providing individual pharmacokinetic data on chloroquine and primaquine of more than a hundred healthy volunteers and using up-to-date analytical methods.

Risk factors for the accuracy of the initial diagnosis of malaria cases in China: a decision-tree modelling approach

January 22, 2022 - 20:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gang Li, Donglan Zhang, Zhuo Chen, Da Feng, Xinyan Cai, Xiaoyu Chen, Shangfeng Tang and Zhanchun Feng
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2022 21:11, 7 January 2022

Early accurate diagnosis and risk assessment for malaria are crucial for improving patients’ terminal prognosis and preventing them from progressing to a severe or critical stage. This study aims to describe the accuracy of the initial diagnosis of malaria cases with different characteristics and the factors that affect the accuracy in the context of the agenda for a world free of malaria.

Functional characterization of 5′ UTR cis-acting sequence elements that modulate translational efficiency in Plasmodium falciparum and humans

January 19, 2022 - 20:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Valentina E. Garcia, Rebekah Dial and Joseph L. DeRisi
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2022 21:15, 6 January 2022

The eukaryotic parasite Plasmodium falciparum causes millions of malarial infections annually while drug resistance to common anti-malarials is further confounding eradication efforts. Translation is an attractive therapeutic target that will benefit from a deeper mechanistic understanding. As the rate limiting step of translation, initiation is a primary driver of translational efficiency. It is a complex process regulated by both cis and trans acting factors, providing numerous potential targets. Relative to model organisms and humans, P. falciparum mRNAs feature unusual 5′ untranslated regions suggesting cis-acting sequence complexity in this parasite may act to tune levels of protein synthesis through their effects on translational efficiency.

Evaluating performance of multiplex real time PCR for the diagnosis of malaria at elimination targeted low transmission settings of Ethiopia

January 19, 2022 - 20:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mahlet Belachew, Mistire Wolde, Desalegn Nega, Bokretsion Gidey, Legessie Negash, Ashenafi Assefa, Geremew Tasew, Adugna Woyessa and Adugna Abera
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2022 21:9, 6 January 2022

Malaria incidence has declined in Ethiopia in the past 10 years. Current malaria diagnostic tests, including light microscopy and rapid antigen-detecting diagnostic tests (RDTs) cannot reliably detect low-density infections. Studies have shown that nucleic acid amplification tests are highly sensitive and specific in detecting malaria infection. This study took place with the aim of evaluating the performance of multiplex real time PCR for the diagnosis of malaria using patient samples collected from health facilities located at malaria elimination targeted low transmission settings in Ethiopia.

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