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Scientific Articles

Estimating intervention effectiveness in trials of malaria interventions with contamination

October 30, 2021 - 14:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lea Multerer, Fiona Vanobberghen, Tracy R. Glass, Alexandra Hiscox, Steven W. Lindsay, Willem Takken, Alfred Tiono and Thomas Smith
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:413, 20 October 2021

In cluster randomized trials (CRTs) or stepped wedge cluster randomized trials (SWCRTs) of malaria interventions, mosquito movement leads to contamination between trial arms unless buffer zones separate the clusters. Contamination can be accounted for in the analysis, yielding an estimate of the contamination range, the distance over which contamination measurably biases the effectiveness.

The impact of mosquito proof lids of underground tanks “tanka” on the breeding of Anopheles stephensi in a village in western Rajasthan, India

October 30, 2021 - 14:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Himmat Singh, Sanjeev Kumar Gupta, Kumar Vikram, Rekha Saxena and Amit Sharma
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:412, 19 October 2021

Western Rajasthan in India has a typical desert climate. Until the introduction of the canal water irrigation system, malaria was an unstable and seasonal occurrence. Due to the scarcity of water, the community practised having one large underground tank (locally known as the tanka) in their house to collect rainwater for long-term household use. Anopheles stephensi, one of the major malaria vectors, breeds in improperly covered "tankas” if not properly covered and harbours a vector population throughout the year.

Malaria diagnosis in a malaria non-endemic high-resource country: high variation of diagnostic strategy in clinical laboratories in the Netherlands

October 30, 2021 - 14:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Marrit B. Boonstra, Rob Koelewijn, Eric A. T. Brienen, Welmoed Silvis, Foekje F. Stelma, Theo G. Mank, Bert Mulder, Lisette van Lieshout and Jaap J. van Hellemond
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:411, 19 October 2021

Microscopic examination of thick and thin blood films is the gold standard in current guidelines for the diagnosis of malaria, but guidelines do not uniformly agree on which combination of other methods should be used and when.

Increase in the proportion of Plasmodium falciparum with kelch13 C580Y mutation and decline in pfcrt and pfmdr1 mutant alleles in Papua New Guinea

October 30, 2021 - 14:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Naoko Yoshida, Masato Yamauchi, Ryosuke Morikawa, Francis Hombhanje and Toshihiro Mita
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:410, 19 October 2021

The C580Y mutation in the Plasmodium falciparum kelch13 gene is the most commonly observed variant in artemisinin-resistant isolates in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). Until 2017, it had not been identified outside the GMS, except for Guyana/Amazonia. In 2017, three parasites carrying the C580Y mutation were identified in Papua New Guinea (PNG). As the C580Y allele rapidly spread in the GMS, there is concern that this mutant is now spreading in PNG.

Assessing Anopheles vector species diversity and transmission of malaria in four health districts along the borders of Côte d’Ivoire

October 30, 2021 - 14:03 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Firmain N. Yokoly, Julien B. Z. Zahouli, Graham Small, Allassane F. Ouattara, Millicent Opoku, Dziedzom K. de Souza and Benjamin G. Koudou
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:409, 18 October 2021

Although malaria and Anopheles mosquito vectors are highly prevalent in Côte d’Ivoire, limited data are available to help understand the malaria vector density and transmission dynamics in areas bordering the country. To address this gap, the Anopheles mosquito species diversity, the members of the Anopheles gambiae complex and the transmission of malaria were assessed in four health districts along the borders of Côte d’Ivoire.

Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in French Guiana: 2005-2019

October 30, 2021 - 13:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Scully J, Mosnier E, Carbunar A, Roux E, Djossou F, Garçeran N, Musset L, Sanna A, Demar M, Nacher M, Gaudart J
Reference: 
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Jan 26;18(3):1077

This study examines the dynamics of malaria as influenced by meteorological factors in French Guiana from 2005 to 2019. It explores spatial hotspots of malaria transmission and aims to determine the factors associated with variation of hotspots with time.

Liver and kidney dysfunction, hypoglycemia, and thrombocytopenia in Plasmodium vivax malaria patients at a Colombian Northwest region

October 30, 2021 - 13:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tovar-Acero C, Velasco MC, Avilés-Vergara PA, Ricardo-Caldera DM, Alvis EM, Ramirez-Montoya J, Yasnot Acosta MF
Reference: 
Parasite Epidemiol Control. 2021 Jan 25;13:e00203

Plasmodium vivax has high morbidity, it is the Plasmodium species with the greatest worldwide distribution, and its ability to trigger severe symptoms is currently recognized. The present study aims to compare the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with P. vivax malaria, with and without complication criteria, in an endemic area for malaria transmission in northwest Colombia.

Incentivizing appropriate malaria case management in the private sector: a study protocol for two linked cluster randomized controlled trials to evaluate provider- and client-focused interventions in western Kenya and Lagos, Nigeria

October 30, 2021 - 13:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Woolsey AM, Simmons RA, O'Meara WP, et al.
Reference: 
Implement Sci. 2021 Jan 20;16(1):14

A large proportion of artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT) anti-malarial medicines is consumed by individuals that do not have malaria. The over-consumption of ACTs is largely driven by retail sales in high malaria-endemic countries to clients who have not received a confirmatory diagnosis. This study aims to target ACT sales to clients receiving a confirmatory diagnosis using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) at retail outlets in Kenya and Nigeria.

Primaquine for Plasmodium vivax radical cure: What we do not know and why it matters

October 30, 2021 - 13:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Popovici J, Tebben K, Witkowski B, Serre D
Reference: 
Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist. 2021 Apr;15:36-42

Plasmodium vivax radical cure requires the administration of a blood schizonticide for killing blood-stage parasites and the addition of a drug able to kill hypnozoites, the dormant parasite stages residing in the liver of infected patients.

Comorbidity of Geo-Helminthes among Malaria Outpatients of the Health Facilities in Ethiopia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

October 30, 2021 - 12:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Boltena MT, El-Khatib Z, Sahlemichael Kebede A, Asamoah BO, Tadesse Boltena A, Yeshambaw M, Biru M
Reference: 
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Jan 20;18(3):862

Coinfection of malaria and intestinal helminths affects one third of the global population, largely among communities with severe poverty. The spread of these parasitic infections overlays in several epidemiological locations and the host shows different outcomes. This systematic review and meta-analysis determine the pooled prevalence of malaria and intestinal helminthiases coinfections among malaria suspected patients in Ethiopia.

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