Toxic effects of pharmacological drugs restrict their robust application against human diseases. Although used as a drug in the combinatorial therapy to treat malaria, the use of mefloquine is not highly recommended because of its adverse effects in humans. Mefloquine inhibits the binding of acyl-CoAs to acyl-CoA-binding proteins of Plasmodium falciparum (PfACBPs) and human (hACBP).
Malarial protozoa commonly infect both wild and captive lizards but the effects on the general health of these animals are not fully understood. We describe four clinical cases of Plasmodium infection in captive black and white tegus (Salvator merianae).
Malaria is a severe global public health challenge that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was designed to determine the prevalence, parasite density, and risk factors associated with malaria infection transmission among residents of two urban communities of Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria.
Bisbenzylisoquinoline (BBIQ) alkaloids are a diverse group of natural products that demonstrate a range of biological activities. In this study, the in vitro antiplasmodial activity of three BBIQ alkaloids (cycleanine [compound 1], isochondodendrine [compound 2], and 2'-norcocsuline [compound 3]) isolated from the Triclisia subcordata Oliv. medicinal plant traditionally used for the treatment of malaria in Nigeria are studied alongside two semisynthetic analogues (compounds 4 and 5) of cycleanine. The antiproliferative effects against a chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain were determined using a SYBR green 1 fluorescence assay.
Sporozoites are a motile form of malaria-causing Plasmodium falciparum parasites that migrate from the site of transmission in the dermis through the bloodstream to invade hepatocytes. Sporozoites interact with many cells within the host, but the molecular identity of these interactions and their role in the pathology of malaria is poorly understood. Parasite proteins that are secreted and embedded within membranes are known to be important for these interactions, but our understanding of how they interact with each other to form functional complexes is largely unknown.
Plasmodium falciparum causes the deadliest form of malaria. Adequate redox control is crucial for this protozoan parasite to overcome oxidative and nitrosative challenges, thus enabling its survival. Sulfenylation is an oxidative post-translational modification, which acts as a molecular on/off switch, regulating protein activity. To obtain a better understanding of which proteins are redox regulated in malaria parasites, we established an optimized affinity capture protocol coupled with mass spectrometry analysis for identification of in vivo sulfenylated proteins.
Understanding how immunity to malaria is affected by declining transmission is important to aid vaccine design and understand disease resurgence. Both IgG subclasses and avidity of antigen-specific responses are important components of an effective immune response. Using a multiplex bead array assay, we measured the total IgG, IgG subclasses, and avidity profiles of responses to 18 P. falciparum blood stage antigens in samples from 160 Ugandans collected at two time points during high malaria transmission and two time points following a dramatic reduction in transmission.
Malaria is the most important parasitic disease of humankind. Cerebral malaria is malaria’s deadliest clinical manifestation and has a profound public health impact in endemic areas. In Africa, it is primarily a disease of childhood. Here we review recent updates in research into cerebral malaria pathogenesis, clinical care, treatment, and prevention.
Assays used to evaluate the transmission-blocking activity of antimalarial drugs are largely focused on their potential to inhibit or reduce the infectivity of gametocytes, the blood stages of the parasite that are responsible for the onward transmission to the mosquito vector. For this purpose, the drug is administered concomitantly with gametocyte-infected blood, and the results are evaluated as the percentage of reduction in the number of oocysts in the mosquito midgut. We report the results of a series of experiments that explore the transmission-blocking potential of two key antimalarial drugs, artesunate and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, when administered to mosquitoes already infected from a previous blood meal.
The ascomycete yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus is a mutualistic symbiont of different insects, including diptera vectors of diseases. Although fungal symbioses have been so far poorly characterized, the topic is gaining attention as yeast-insect interactions can provide pivotal information on insect biology, such as their environmental adaptation or vectorial capability.