The scale up of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide treated nets have contributed significantly to global reductions in malaria prevalence over the last two decades. However, widespread pyrethroid resistance has necessitated the use of new and more expensive insecticides for IRS. Partial IRS with pirimiphos-methyl in experimental huts and houses in a village-wide trial was evaluated against Anopheles gambiae s.l. in northern Ghana.
Malaria is a highly prevalent parasitic disease in regions with tropical and subtropical climates worldwide. Among the species of Plasmodium causing human malaria, P. vivax is the second most prevalent and the most geographically widespread species. A major target of a pre-erythrocytic vaccine is the P. vivax circumsporozoite protein (PvCSP). In previous studies, we fused two recombinant proteins representing three allelic variants of PvCSP (VK210, VK247 and P. vivax-like) to the mumps virus nucleocapsid protein to enhance immune responses against PvCSP.
Increasing drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinins and their ACT partner drugs jeopardises effective antimalarial treatment. Resistance is worst in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Monitoring genetic markers of resistance can help to guide antimalarial therapy. Markers of resistance to artemisinins (PfKelch mutations), mefloquine (amplification of P. falciparum multidrug resistance-1, PfMDR1,), and piperaquine (PfPlasmepsin2/3 amplification and specific P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter, PfCRT, mutations) were assessed in 6,722 P. falciparum samples from Vietnam, Lao PDR, Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar between 2007 and 2019.
Anopheles aquasalis is an important malaria vector in coastal regions of South America and islands of the Caribbean. In its original description, the species was divided into two varieties, based on the scaling patterns of their hind-tarsomere 2. Specimens from our 25-year established colony, used for Plasmodium experimental infections, still exhibit both scaling tarsomere patterns.
The provision of post-discharge malaria chemoprevention (PMC) in children recently admitted with severe anemia reduces the risk of death and re-admissions in malaria endemic countries. The main objective of this trial was to identify the most effective method of delivering dihydroartemesinin-piperaquine to children recovering from severe anemia.
In cluster randomized trials (CRTs) of interventions against malaria, mosquito movement between households ultimately leads to contamination between intervention and control arms, unless they are separated by wide buffer zones.
Placental malaria (PM) is a deadly public health problem caused by the human parasite Plasmodium falciparum, and this scourge will get worse as existing control measures lose potency. Our understanding of PM pathogenesis suggests a vaccine is feasible, but first-generation candidates yielded only modest variant-specific activity in early trials.
In the Malaysian state of Sabah, P. knowlesi notifications increased from 2% (59/2,741) of total malaria notifications in 2004 to 98% (2030/2,078) in 2017. There was a gap regarding P. knowlesi acquisition risk factors related to practice specifically in working age group. The main objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for acquiring P. knowlesi infection in Sabah among the working age group.
Antigen polymorphisms in essential malarial antigens are a key challenge to the design and development of broadly effective malaria vaccines. The effect of polymorphisms on antibody responses is fairly well studied while much fewer studies have assessed this for T cell responses. This study investigated the effect of allelic polymorphisms in the malarial antigen apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) on ex vivo T cell-specific IFN-γ responses in subjects with lifelong exposure to malaria.
The knob-associated histidine-rich protein (KAHRP) plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of Plasmodium falciparum malaria by forming membrane protrusions in infected erythrocytes, which anchor parasite-encoded adhesins to the membrane skeleton. The resulting sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes in the microvasculature leads to severe disease. Despite KAHRP being an important virulence factor, its physical location within the membrane skeleton is still debated, as is its function in knob formation.