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Scientific Articles

Partial indoor residual spraying with pirimiphos-methyl as an effective and cost-saving measure for the control of Anopheles gambiae s.l. in northern Ghana

September 15, 2021 - 11:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Coleman S, Yihdego Y, Seyoum A, et al.
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Sep 10;11(1):18055

The scale up of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide treated nets have contributed significantly to global reductions in malaria prevalence over the last two decades. However, widespread pyrethroid resistance has necessitated the use of new and more expensive insecticides for IRS. Partial IRS with pirimiphos-methyl in experimental huts and houses in a village-wide trial was evaluated against Anopheles gambiae s.l. in northern Ghana.

A universal vaccine candidate against Plasmodium vivax malaria confers protective immunity against the three PvCSP alleles

September 15, 2021 - 11:48 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gimenez AM, Salman AM, Marques RF, López-Camacho C, Harrison K, Kim YC, Janse CJ, Soares IS, Reyes-Sandoval A
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Sep 9;11(1):17928

Malaria is a highly prevalent parasitic disease in regions with tropical and subtropical climates worldwide. Among the species of Plasmodium causing human malaria, P. vivax is the second most prevalent and the most geographically widespread species. A major target of a pre-erythrocytic vaccine is the P. vivax circumsporozoite protein (PvCSP). In previous studies, we fused two recombinant proteins representing three allelic variants of PvCSP (VK210, VK247 and P. vivax-like) to the mumps virus nucleocapsid protein to enhance immune responses against PvCSP.

Evolution of multidrug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum: a longitudinal study of genetic resistance markers in the Greater Mekong Subregion

September 15, 2021 - 11:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Imwong M, Suwannasin K, Dondorp AM, et al.
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2021 Sep 13:AAC0112121

Increasing drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinins and their ACT partner drugs jeopardises effective antimalarial treatment. Resistance is worst in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Monitoring genetic markers of resistance can help to guide antimalarial therapy. Markers of resistance to artemisinins (PfKelch mutations), mefloquine (amplification of P. falciparum multidrug resistance-1, PfMDR1,), and piperaquine (PfPlasmepsin2/3 amplification and specific P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter, PfCRT, mutations) were assessed in 6,722 P. falciparum samples from Vietnam, Lao PDR, Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar between 2007 and 2019.

NOT Open Access | Phenotypic traits of individuals in a long-term colony of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae) show variable susceptibility to Plasmodium and suggest cryptic speciation

September 15, 2021 - 11:42 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Rodrigues NB, Villegas LEM, Duarte APM, Orfanó AS, Dos Anjos Costa B, Nacif Pimenta R, Lacerda MVG, Monteiro WM, Secundino NFC, Pimenta PFP
Reference: 
Acta Trop. 2021 Sep 9:106129

Anopheles aquasalis is an important malaria vector in coastal regions of South America and islands of the Caribbean. In its original description, the species was divided into two varieties, based on the scaling patterns of their hind-tarsomere 2. Specimens from our 25-year established colony, used for Plasmodium experimental infections, still exhibit both scaling tarsomere patterns.

Adherence to community versus facility-based delivery of monthly malaria chemoprevention with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for the post-discharge management of severe anemia in Malawian children: A cluster randomized trial

September 15, 2021 - 11:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nkosi-Gondwe T, Robberstad B, Mukaka M, Idro R, Opoka RO, Banda S, Kühl MJ, O Ter Kuile F, Blomberg B, Phiri KS
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Sep 10;16(9):e0255769

The provision of post-discharge malaria chemoprevention (PMC) in children recently admitted with severe anemia reduces the risk of death and re-admissions in malaria endemic countries. The main objective of this trial was to identify the most effective method of delivering dihydroartemesinin-piperaquine to children recovering from severe anemia.

Analysis of contamination in cluster randomized trials of malaria interventions

September 15, 2021 - 11:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Multerer L, Glass TR, Vanobberghen F, Smith T
Reference: 
Trials. 2021 Sep 10;22(1):613

In cluster randomized trials (CRTs) of interventions against malaria, mosquito movement between households ultimately leads to contamination between intervention and control arms, unless they are separated by wide buffer zones.

Can complement fix placental malaria

September 15, 2021 - 11:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Doritchamou JYA, Duffy PE.
Reference: 
Med. 2021 Sep 10;19(1):231

Placental malaria (PM) is a deadly public health problem caused by the human parasite Plasmodium falciparum, and this scourge will get worse as existing control measures lose potency. Our understanding of PM pathogenesis suggests a vaccine is feasible, but first-generation candidates yielded only modest variant-specific activity in early trials.

Risk factor of plasmodium knowlesi infection in Sabah Borneo Malaysia, 2020: A population-based case-control study

September 14, 2021 - 15:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chin AZ, Avoi R, Atil A, Awang Lukman K, Syed Abdul Rahim SS, Ibrahim MY, Ahmed K, Jeffree MS
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Sep 10;16(9):e0257104

In the Malaysian state of Sabah, P. knowlesi notifications increased from 2% (59/2,741) of total malaria notifications in 2004 to 98% (2030/2,078) in 2017. There was a gap regarding P. knowlesi acquisition risk factors related to practice specifically in working age group. The main objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for acquiring P. knowlesi infection in Sabah among the working age group.

Comparative analysis of the ex vivo IFN-gamma responses to CD8+ T cell epitopes within allelic forms of PfAMA1 in subjects with natural exposure to malaria

September 14, 2021 - 14:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nlinwe ON, Ofori EA, Akyea-Mensah K, Kyei-Baafour E, Ganeshan H, Belmonte M, Peters B, Villasante E, Sedegah M, Kusi KA
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Sep 10;16(9):e0257219

Antigen polymorphisms in essential malarial antigens are a key challenge to the design and development of broadly effective malaria vaccines. The effect of polymorphisms on antibody responses is fairly well studied while much fewer studies have assessed this for T cell responses. This study investigated the effect of allelic polymorphisms in the malarial antigen apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) on ex vivo T cell-specific IFN-γ responses in subjects with lifelong exposure to malaria.

Not Open Access | KAHRP dynamically relocalizes to remodeled actin junctions and associates with knob spirals in P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes

September 14, 2021 - 14:36 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Sanchez CP, Patra P, Chang SS, Karathanasis C, Hanebutte L, Kilian N, Cyrklaff M, Heilemann M, Schwarz US, Kudryashev M, Lanzer M
Reference: 
Mol Microbiol. 2021 Sep 13

The knob-associated histidine-rich protein (KAHRP) plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of Plasmodium falciparum malaria by forming membrane protrusions in infected erythrocytes, which anchor parasite-encoded adhesins to the membrane skeleton. The resulting sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes in the microvasculature leads to severe disease. Despite KAHRP being an important virulence factor, its physical location within the membrane skeleton is still debated, as is its function in knob formation.

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