The pandemic’s effects on efforts to thwart other infectious diseases could exceed the direct impact of COVID-19.
Sporozoite antigens are the basis of a number of malaria vaccines being tested, but the contribution of antigens expressed during subsequent liver stage development to pre-erythrocytic stage immunity is poorly understood.
In many endemic areas, Plasmodium vivax malaria is predominantly a disease of young adults and children. International recommendations for radical cure recommend fixed target doses of 0.25 or 0.5 mg/kg/day of primaquine for 14 days in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase normal patients of all ages. However, for many anti-malarial drugs, including primaquine, there is evidence that children have lower exposures than adults for the same weight-adjusted dose. The aim of the study was to develop 14-day weight-based and age-based primaquine regimens against high-frequency relapsing tropical P. vivax.
This article is inter alia a brief, first-stop guide to possible adverse events (AEs) associated with tafenoquine (TQ) intake. Safety and efficacy findings for TQ in Plasmodium vivax malaria prophylaxis and radical cure are summarized and some of the latest TQ-related studies (published in 2020 and 2021) are highlighted.
Acute Plasmodium vivax malaria is associated with haemolysis, bone marrow suppression, reticulocytopenia, and post-treatment reticulocytosis leading to haemoglobin recovery. Little is known how malaria affects glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity and whether changes in activity when patients present may lead qualitative tests, like the fluorescent spot test (FST), to misdiagnose G6PD deficient (G6PDd) patients as G6PD normal (G6PDn). Giving primaquine or tafenoquine to such patients could result in severe haemolysis.
A DNA-prime/human adenovirus serotype 5 (HuAd5) boost vaccine encoding Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) and Pf apical membrane antigen-1 (PfAMA1), elicited protection in 4/15 (27%) of subjects against controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) that was statistically associated with CD8+ T cell responses. Subjects with high level pre-existing immunity to HuAd5 were not protected, suggesting an adverse effect on vaccine efficacy (VE). We replaced HuAd5 with chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63), and repeated the study, assessing both the two-antigen (CSP, AMA1 = CA) vaccine, and a novel three-antigen (CSP, AMA1, ME-TRAP = CAT) vaccine that included a third pre-erythrocytic stage antigen [malaria multiple epitopes (ME) fused to the Pf thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP)] to potentially enhance protection.
Malaria and invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are life-threatening infections that often co-exist in African children. The iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin is highly upregulated during malaria and controls the availability of iron, a critical nutrient for bacterial growth. We investigated the relationship between Plasmodium falciparum malaria and NTS bacteremia in all pediatric admissions aged ≤5 years between August 1998 and October 2019 (n=75,034). We then assayed hepcidin and measures of iron status in five groups: (1) children with concomitant severe malarial anemia (SMA) and NTS (SMA+NTS, n=16); and in matched children with (2) SMA (n=33); (3) NTS (n=33); (4) cerebral malaria (CM, n=34); and (5) community-based children.
Plasmodium species have a single mitochondrion that is essential for their survival and has been successfully targeted by antimalarial drugs. Most mitochondrial proteins are imported into this organelle, and our picture of the Plasmodium mitochondrial proteome remains incomplete. Many data sources contain information about mitochondrial localization, including proteome and gene expression profiles, orthology to mitochondrial proteins from other species, coevolutionary relationships, and amino acid sequences, each with different coverage and reliability.
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that over three billion people are at risk of acquiring malaria, a parasitic infection that produces more than 200 million new infections and nearly half a million deaths each year. Expanding the access to early diagnosis and treatment is one of the most effective ways to prevent disease complications, reduce patient mortality, and curb the community transmission.
Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest causal agent of malaria, caused more than half of the 229 million malaria cases worldwide in 2019. The emergence and spreading of frontline drug-resistant Plasmodium strains are challenging to overcome in the battle against malaria and raise urgent demands for novel antimalarial agents. The P. falciparum formate–nitrite transporter (PfFNT) is a potential drug target due to its housekeeping role in lactate efflux during the intraerythrocytic stage.