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Scientific Articles

Not Open Access | Inferior T cell immunogenicity of a Plasmodium berghei model liver stage antigen expressed throughout pre-erythrocytic maturation

September 14, 2021 - 14:25 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Gibbins MP, Müller K, Matuschewski K, Silvie O, Hafalla JCR
Reference: 
Parasite Immunol. 2021 Sep 13:e12877

Sporozoite antigens are the basis of a number of malaria vaccines being tested, but the contribution of antigens expressed during subsequent liver stage development to pre-erythrocytic stage immunity is poorly understood.

Development of weight and age-based dosing of daily primaquine for radical cure of vivax malaria

September 14, 2021 - 14:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Walter Robert Taylor, Richard M. Hoglund, Mavuto Mukaka, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:366 9 September 2021

In many endemic areas, Plasmodium vivax malaria is predominantly a disease of young adults and children. International recommendations for radical cure recommend fixed target doses of 0.25 or 0.5 mg/kg/day of primaquine for 14 days in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase normal patients of all ages. However, for many anti-malarial drugs, including primaquine, there is evidence that children have lower exposures than adults for the same weight-adjusted dose. The aim of the study was to develop 14-day weight-based and age-based primaquine regimens against high-frequency relapsing tropical P. vivax.

Safety and Efficacy of Tafenoquine for Plasmodium vivax Malaria Prophylaxis and Radical Cure: Overview and Perspectives

September 14, 2021 - 14:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Markus MB
Reference: 
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management,Volume 17

This article is inter alia a brief, first-stop guide to possible adverse events (AEs) associated with tafenoquine (TQ) intake. Safety and efficacy findings for TQ in Plasmodium vivax malaria prophylaxis and radical cure are summarized and some of the latest TQ-related studies (published in 2020 and 2021) are highlighted.

Dynamics of G6PD activity in patients receiving weekly primaquine for therapy of Plasmodium vivax malaria

September 14, 2021 - 14:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Taylor WRJ, Kim S, Kheng S, Muth S, Tor P, Christophel E, Mukaka M, Kerleguer A, Luzzatto L, Baird JK, Menard D
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Sep 8;15(9):e0009690

Acute Plasmodium vivax malaria is associated with haemolysis, bone marrow suppression, reticulocytopenia, and post-treatment reticulocytosis leading to haemoglobin recovery. Little is known how malaria affects glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity and whether changes in activity when patients present may lead qualitative tests, like the fluorescent spot test (FST), to misdiagnose G6PD deficient (G6PDd) patients as G6PD normal (G6PDn). Giving primaquine or tafenoquine to such patients could result in severe haemolysis.

A three-antigen Plasmodium falciparum DNA prime-Adenovirus boost malaria vaccine regimen is superior to a two-antigen regimen and protects against controlled human malaria infection in healthy malaria-naive adults

September 14, 2021 - 09:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sklar MJ, Maiolatesi S, Duplessis CA, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Sep 8;16(9):e0256980

A DNA-prime/human adenovirus serotype 5 (HuAd5) boost vaccine encoding Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) and Pf apical membrane antigen-1 (PfAMA1), elicited protection in 4/15 (27%) of subjects against controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) that was statistically associated with CD8+ T cell responses. Subjects with high level pre-existing immunity to HuAd5 were not protected, suggesting an adverse effect on vaccine efficacy (VE). We replaced HuAd5 with chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63), and repeated the study, assessing both the two-antigen (CSP, AMA1 = CA) vaccine, and a novel three-antigen (CSP, AMA1, ME-TRAP = CAT) vaccine that included a third pre-erythrocytic stage antigen [malaria multiple epitopes (ME) fused to the Pf thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP)] to potentially enhance protection.

Hepcidin regulation in Kenyan children with severe malaria and non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteremia

September 14, 2021 - 09:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Abuga KM, Muriuki JM, Atkinson SH, et al.
Reference: 
Haematologica. 2021 Sep 9

Malaria and invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are life-threatening infections that often co-exist in African children. The iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin is highly upregulated during malaria and controls the availability of iron, a critical nutrient for bacterial growth. We investigated the relationship between Plasmodium falciparum malaria and NTS bacteremia in all pediatric admissions aged ≤5 years between August 1998 and October 2019 (n=75,034). We then assayed hepcidin and measures of iron status in five groups: (1) children with concomitant severe malarial anemia (SMA) and NTS (SMA+NTS, n=16); and in matched children with (2) SMA (n=33); (3) NTS (n=33); (4) cerebral malaria (CM, n=34); and (5) community-based children.

A Prioritized and Validated Resource of Mitochondrial Proteins in Plasmodium Identifies Unique Biology

September 14, 2021 - 09:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
van Esveld SL, Meerstein-Kessel L, Huynen MA, et al.
Reference: 
mSphere. 2021 Sep 8:e0061421

Plasmodium species have a single mitochondrion that is essential for their survival and has been successfully targeted by antimalarial drugs. Most mitochondrial proteins are imported into this organelle, and our picture of the Plasmodium mitochondrial proteome remains incomplete. Many data sources contain information about mitochondrial localization, including proteome and gene expression profiles, orthology to mitochondrial proteins from other species, coevolutionary relationships, and amino acid sequences, each with different coverage and reliability.

NOT Open Access | Development of a Fast Chemiluminescent Magneto-Immunoassay for Sensitive Plasmodium falciparum Detection in Whole Blood

September 14, 2021 - 09:27 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Sánchez-Cano A, Ruiz-Vega G, Vicente-Gómez S, de la Serna E, Sulleiro E, Molina I, Sánchez-Montalvá A, Baldrich E
Reference: 
Anal Chem. 2021 Sep 9

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that over three billion people are at risk of acquiring malaria, a parasitic infection that produces more than 200 million new infections and nearly half a million deaths each year. Expanding the access to early diagnosis and treatment is one of the most effective ways to prevent disease complications, reduce patient mortality, and curb the community transmission.

Structural characterization of the Plasmodium falciparum lactate transporter PfFNT alone and in complex with antimalarial compound MMV007839 reveals its inhibition mechanism

September 14, 2021 - 09:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Peng X, Wang N, Deng D, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Biol. 2021 Sep 9;19(9):e3001386

Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest causal agent of malaria, caused more than half of the 229 million malaria cases worldwide in 2019. The emergence and spreading of frontline drug-resistant Plasmodium strains are challenging to overcome in the battle against malaria and raise urgent demands for novel antimalarial agents. The P. falciparum formate–nitrite transporter (PfFNT) is a potential drug target due to its housekeeping role in lactate efflux during the intraerythrocytic stage.

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