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Scientific Articles

NOT Open Access | Therapeutic Efficacy of Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Investigation of Molecular Markers of Antimalarial Resistance

September 8, 2021 - 17:15 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Moriarty LF, Nkoli PM, Kahunu GM, et al.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd210214

Routine assessment of the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) is critical for the early detection of antimalarial resistance. We evaluated the efficacy of ACTs recommended for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in five sites in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC): artemether-lumefantrine (AL), artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ), and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP). Children aged 6-59 months with confirmed Plasmodium falciparum malaria were treated with one of the three ACTs and monitored.

NOT Open Access | An Adaptive Intervention Trial Design for Finding the Optimal Integrated Strategies for Malaria Control and Elimination in Africa: A Model Simulation Study

September 8, 2021 - 17:13 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Zhou G, Lee MC, Wang X, Zhong D, Hemming-Schroeder E, Yan G
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd200254

There are a number of available and emerging malaria intervention tools that require innovative trial designs to find the optimal combinations at given epidemiologic settings. We simulated intervention strategies based on adaptive interventions, which included long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), piperonyl butoxide-treated LLINs (PBO-LLINs), indoor residual spraying (IRS), and long-lasting microbial larviciding (LLML). The aims were to determine if PBO-LLINs or LLIN+IRS combination is more effective for initial interventions than LLINs and to identify the most effective intervention.

NOT Open Access | An antibody for malaria prevention

September 8, 2021 - 17:11 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
O'Leary K
Reference: 
Nat Med. 2021 Sep 6


Despite existing public-health measures, the incidence of malaria is increasing in many regions. Malaria causes nearly 400,000 deaths annually; new measures are therefore urgently needed to help control this disease

Complete mitogenomes of Anopheles peditaeniatus and Anopheles nitidus and phylogenetic relationships within the genus Anopheles inferred from mitogenomes

September 8, 2021 - 17:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Guo J, Yan ZT, Fu WB, Yuan H, Li XD, Chen B
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Sep 6;14(1):452

Despite the medical importance of mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles in the transmission of malaria and other human diseases, its phylogenetic relationships are not settled, and the characteristics of mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) are not thoroughly understood.

The cardiovascular effects of amodiaquine and structurally related antimalarials: An individual patient data meta-analysis

September 8, 2021 - 17:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chan XHS, Haeusler IL, White NJ, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2021 Sep 7;18(9):e1003766

Amodiaquine is a 4-aminoquinoline antimalarial similar to chloroquine that is used extensively for the treatment and prevention of malaria. Data on the cardiovascular effects of amodiaquine are scarce, although transient effects on cardiac electrophysiology (electrocardiographic QT interval prolongation and sinus bradycardia) have been observed. We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis to characterise the cardiovascular effects of amodiaquine and thereby support development of risk minimisation measures to improve the safety of this important antimalarial.

NOT Open Access | Single-genome sequencing reveals within-host evolution of human malaria parasites

September 8, 2021 - 17:05 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Dia A, Jett C, Trevino SG, Chu CS, Sriprawat K, Anderson TJC, Nosten F, Cheeseman IH
Reference: 
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Sep 1:S1931-3128(21)00385-1

Population genomics of bulk malaria infections is unable to examine intrahost evolution; therefore, most work has focused on the role of recombination in generating genetic variation. We used single-cell sequencing protocol for low-parasitaemia infections to generate 406 near-complete single Plasmodium vivax genomes from 11 patients sampled during sequential febrile episodes.

NOT Open Access | Ototoxic hearing loss from antimalarials: A systematic narrative review

September 8, 2021 - 17:04 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Dillard LK, Fullerton AM, McMahon CM
Reference: 
Travel Med Infect Dis. 2021 Sep-Oct;43:102117 Background

Drugs used in curative and prophylactic antimalarial treatment may be ototoxic and lead to permanent hearing loss, but there is no consensus regarding prevalence and permanence of ototoxic hearing loss caused by antimalarials. The purpose of this systematic narrative review was to synthesize current evidence on antimalarial ototoxicity in human populations.

Molecular phylogeny of the Anopheles hyrcanus group (Diptera: Culicidae) based on rDNA-ITS2 and mtDNA-COII

September 8, 2021 - 17:02 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zhang C, Yang R, Wu L, Luo C, Guo X, Deng Y, Zhou H, Zhang Y
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Sep 6;14(1):454

The Anopheles hyrcanus group, which includes 25 species, is widely distributed in the Oriental and Palaearctic regions. Given the difficulty in identifying cryptic or sibling species based on their morphological characteristics, molecular identification is regarded as an important complementary approach to traditional morphological taxonomy. The aim of this study was to reconstruct the phylogeny of the Hyrcanus group using DNA barcoding markers in order to determine the phylogenetic correlations of closely related taxa and to compare these markers in terms of identification efficiency and genetic divergence among species.

NOT Open Access | Cyclic Tetrapeptide HDAC Inhibitors with Improved Plasmodium falciparum Selectivity and Killing Profile

September 8, 2021 - 16:59 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Collins JE, Lee JW, Bohmer MJ, Welden JD, Arshadi AK, Du L, Cichewicz RH, Chakrabarti D
Reference: 
ACS Infect Dis. 2021 Sep 7

Cyclic tetrapeptide histone deacetylase inhibitors represent a promising class of antiplasmodial agents that epigenetically disrupt a wide range of cellular processes in Plasmodium falciparum. Unfortunately, certain limitations, including reversible killing effects and host cell toxicity, prevented these inhibitors from further development and clinical use as antimalarials.

A Systematic Review of the Evidence on the Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Mass Screen-and-Treat Interventions for Malaria Control

September 8, 2021 - 16:57 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kim S, Luande VN, Rocklöv J, Carlton JM, Tozan Y
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd210325

Malaria elimination and eradication efforts have stalled globally. Further, asymptomatic infections as silent transmission reservoirs are considered a major challenge to malaria elimination efforts. There is increased interest in a mass screen-and-treat (MSAT) strategy as an alternative to mass drug administration to reduce malaria burden and transmission in endemic settings.

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