Routine assessment of the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) is critical for the early detection of antimalarial resistance. We evaluated the efficacy of ACTs recommended for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in five sites in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC): artemether-lumefantrine (AL), artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ), and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP). Children aged 6-59 months with confirmed Plasmodium falciparum malaria were treated with one of the three ACTs and monitored.
There are a number of available and emerging malaria intervention tools that require innovative trial designs to find the optimal combinations at given epidemiologic settings. We simulated intervention strategies based on adaptive interventions, which included long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), piperonyl butoxide-treated LLINs (PBO-LLINs), indoor residual spraying (IRS), and long-lasting microbial larviciding (LLML). The aims were to determine if PBO-LLINs or LLIN+IRS combination is more effective for initial interventions than LLINs and to identify the most effective intervention.
Despite existing public-health measures, the incidence of malaria is increasing in many regions. Malaria causes nearly 400,000 deaths annually; new measures are therefore urgently needed to help control this disease
Despite the medical importance of mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles in the transmission of malaria and other human diseases, its phylogenetic relationships are not settled, and the characteristics of mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) are not thoroughly understood.
Amodiaquine is a 4-aminoquinoline antimalarial similar to chloroquine that is used extensively for the treatment and prevention of malaria. Data on the cardiovascular effects of amodiaquine are scarce, although transient effects on cardiac electrophysiology (electrocardiographic QT interval prolongation and sinus bradycardia) have been observed. We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis to characterise the cardiovascular effects of amodiaquine and thereby support development of risk minimisation measures to improve the safety of this important antimalarial.
Population genomics of bulk malaria infections is unable to examine intrahost evolution; therefore, most work has focused on the role of recombination in generating genetic variation. We used single-cell sequencing protocol for low-parasitaemia infections to generate 406 near-complete single Plasmodium vivax genomes from 11 patients sampled during sequential febrile episodes.
Drugs used in curative and prophylactic antimalarial treatment may be ototoxic and lead to permanent hearing loss, but there is no consensus regarding prevalence and permanence of ototoxic hearing loss caused by antimalarials. The purpose of this systematic narrative review was to synthesize current evidence on antimalarial ototoxicity in human populations.
The Anopheles hyrcanus group, which includes 25 species, is widely distributed in the Oriental and Palaearctic regions. Given the difficulty in identifying cryptic or sibling species based on their morphological characteristics, molecular identification is regarded as an important complementary approach to traditional morphological taxonomy. The aim of this study was to reconstruct the phylogeny of the Hyrcanus group using DNA barcoding markers in order to determine the phylogenetic correlations of closely related taxa and to compare these markers in terms of identification efficiency and genetic divergence among species.
Cyclic tetrapeptide histone deacetylase inhibitors represent a promising class of antiplasmodial agents that epigenetically disrupt a wide range of cellular processes in Plasmodium falciparum. Unfortunately, certain limitations, including reversible killing effects and host cell toxicity, prevented these inhibitors from further development and clinical use as antimalarials.
Malaria elimination and eradication efforts have stalled globally. Further, asymptomatic infections as silent transmission reservoirs are considered a major challenge to malaria elimination efforts. There is increased interest in a mass screen-and-treat (MSAT) strategy as an alternative to mass drug administration to reduce malaria burden and transmission in endemic settings.