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Scientific Articles

Molecular Epidemiology of Plasmodium species in Conflicted Federally Administered Tribal Area (FATA) Pakistan

September 8, 2021 - 16:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nadeem MF, Khattak AA, Zeeshan N, Awan UA, Alam S, Ahmed W, Gul S, Afroz A, Sughra K, Rashid U, Khan MAU
Reference: 
Braz J Biol. 2021 Aug 27;83:e247219

Military conflicts have been significant obstacles in detecting and treating infectious disease diseases due to the diminished public health infrastructure, resulting in malaria endemicity. A variety of violent and destructive incidents were experienced by FATA (Federally Administered Tribal Areas). It was a struggle to pursue an epidemiological analysis due to continuing conflict and Talibanization. Clinical isolates were collected from Bajaur, Mohmand, Khyber, Orakzai agencies from May 2017 to May 2018. For Giemsa staining, full blood EDTA blood samples have been collected from symptomatic participants

From the factory to the field: considerations of product characteristics for insecticide-treated net (ITN) bioefficacy testing

September 8, 2021 - 16:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ole Skovmand, Duoc M. Dang, Trung Q. Tran, Rune Bossellman and Sarah J. Moore
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:363, 6 September 2021

Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) undergo a series of tests to obtain listing by World Health Organization (WHO) Prequalification. These tests characterize the bioefficacy, physical and chemical properties of the ITN. ITN procurers assume that product specifications relate to product performance. Here, ITN test methods and their underlying assumptions are discussed from the perspective of the ITN manufacturing process and product characteristics.

Risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum infection in pregnant women in Burkina Faso: a community-based cross-sectional survey

September 8, 2021 - 16:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jean Baptiste Yaro, Alphonse Ouedraogo, Amidou Diarra, Salif Sombié, Z. Amidou Ouedraogo, Issa Nébié, Chris Drakeley, Sodiomon B. Sirima, Alfred B. Tiono, Steven W. Lindsay and Anne L. Wilson
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:362, 6 September 2021

Malaria in pregnancy remains a public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Identifying risk factors for malaria in pregnancy could assist in developing interventions to reduce the risk of malaria in Burkina Faso and other countries in the region.

Combining malaria vaccination with chemoprevention: a promising new approach to malaria control

September 8, 2021 - 16:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Brian Greenwood, Matthew Cairns, Mike Chaponda, R. Matthew Chico, Alassane Dicko, Jean-Bosco Ouedraogo, Kamija S. Phiri, Feiko O. ter Kuile and Daniel Chandramohan
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:361, 6 September 2021

Malaria control has stalled in a number of African countries and novel approaches to malaria control are needed for these areas. The encouraging results of a recent trial conducted in young children in Burkina Faso and Mali in which a combination of the RTS,S/AS01E malaria vaccine and seasonal malaria chemoprevention led to a substantial reduction in clinical cases of malaria, severe malaria, and malaria deaths compared with the administration of either intervention given alone suggests that there may be other epidemiological/clinical situations in which a combination of malaria vaccination and chemoprevention could be beneficial.

NOT Open Access | OPD (Online Plasmodium Diagnosis): An ALA-PpIX based Functional Assay to Predict Active Malaria

September 8, 2021 - 16:16 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ashraf S, Agyapong J, Rohrbach P, Hasan T
Reference: 
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2021 Aug 30:102510

Malaria kills one child every 30 seconds reaching up to 3000 children a day. The mosquito borne malarial parasite invades the blood stream and hijacks red blood cells (RBCs). One of the medical successes of the 20th century was development of malaria diagnostic tests. However, poor specificity and sensitivity along with the inability of these assays to distinguish active malarial infections has put the management scheme in jeopardy.

An update on prevention of malaria in travelers

September 8, 2021 - 16:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Agudelo Higuita NI, White BP, Franco-Paredes C, McGhee MA
Reference: 
Ther Adv Infect Dis. 2021 Aug 30;8:20499361211040690

Malaria, a parasitic disease caused by protozoa belonging to the genus Plasmodium, continues to represent a formidable public health challenge. Despite being a preventable disease, cases reported among travelers have continued to increase in recent decades.

NOT Open Access | Plasmodium vivax pre-erythrocytic stages and the latent hypnozoite

September 8, 2021 - 16:12 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Zanghi G, Vaughan AM
Reference: 
Parasitol Int. 2021 Aug 30:102447

Plasmodium vivax is the most geographically widespread malaria parasite on the planet. This is largely because after mosquito transmission, P. vivax sporozoites can invade hepatocytes and form latent liver stages known as hypnozoites. These persistent liver stages can activate weeks, months or even years after an infected individual undergoes a primary clinical infection.

Not Open Access | Oral-maxillofacial adverse events related to antimalarials

September 8, 2021 - 16:11 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Shuai Y, Wang J, Jiang H, Yu Y, Jin L
Reference: 
Oral Dis. 2021 Sep;27(6):1376-1382

Malaria is a worldwide parasitic disease, which affects millions of lives every year. Various medications are recommended by WHO for prevention and treatment of malaria. However, adverse events caused by antimalarials were frequently reported, some of which were severe and fatal.

Identification of first-in-class plasmodium OTU inhibitors with potent anti-malarial activity

September 8, 2021 - 16:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Siyah P, Akgol S, Durdagi S, Kocabas F
Reference: 
Biochem J. 2021 Sep 6:BCJ20210481

OTU proteases antagonize the cellular defense in the host cells and involve in pathogenesis. Intriguingly, P. falciparum, P. vivax, and P. yoelii have an uncharacterized and highly conserved viral OTU-like proteins. However, their structure, function or inhibitors have not been previously reported. To this end, we have performed structural modeling, small molecule screening, deconjugation assays to characterize and develop first-in-class inhibitors of P. falciparum, P. vivax, and P. yoelii OTU-like proteins.

Not Open Access | Mosquito transgenesis for malaria control

September 8, 2021 - 16:06 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Dong S, Dong Y, Simões ML, Dimopoulos G
Reference: 
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Sep 2:S1471-4922(21)00199-9

Malaria is one of the deadliest diseases. Because of the ineffectiveness of current malaria-control methods, several novel mosquito vector-based control strategies have been proposed to supplement existing control strategies. Mosquito transgenesis and gene drive have emerged as promising tools for preventing the spread of malaria by either suppressing mosquito populations by self-destructing mosquitoes or replacing mosquito populations with disease-refractory populations.

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